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Tema: John R. R. Tolkien ~ Džon R. R. Tolkin  (Pročitano 36926 puta)
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 Chapter 23
Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin

 It has been told that Huor the brother of Hurin was slain in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears; and in the winter of that year Rian his wife bore a child in the wilds of Mithrim, and he was named Tuor, and was taken to foster by Annael of the Grey-elves, who yet lived in those hills. Now when Tuor was sixteen years old the Elves were minded to leave the caves of Androth where they dwelt, and to make their way secretly to the Havens of Sirion in the distant south; but they were assailed by Orcs and Easterlings before they made good their escape, and Tuor was taken captive and enslaved by Lorgan, chief of the Easterlings of Hithlum. For three years he endured that thraldom, but at the end of that time he escaped; and returning to the caves of Androth he dwelt there alone, and did such great hurt to the Easterlings that Lorgan set a price upon his head.
   But when Tuor had lived thus in solitude as an outlaw for four years, Ulmo set it in his heart to depart from the land of his fathers, for he had chosen Tuor as the instrument of his designs; and leaving once more the caves of Androth he went westwards across Dor-lomin, and found Annon-in-Gelydh, the Gate of the Noldor, which the people of Turgon built when they dwelt in Nevrast long years before. Thence a dark tunnel led beneath the mountains, and issued into Cirith Ninniach, the Rainbow Cleft, through which a turbulent water ran towards the western sea. Thus it was that Tuor's flight from Hithlum was marked by neither Man nor Orc, and no knowledge of it came to the ears of Morgoth.
   And Tuor came into Nevrast, and looking upon Belegaer the Great Sea he was enamoured of it, and the sound of it and the longing for it were ever in his heart and ear, and an unquiet was on him that took him at last into the depths of the realms of Ulmo. Then he dwelt in Nevrast alone, and the summer of that year passed, and the doom of Nargothrond drew near; but when the autumn came he saw seven great swans flying south, and he knew them for a sign that he had tarried overlong, and he followed their flight along the shores of the sea. Thus he came at length to the deserted halls of Vinyamar beneath Mount Taras, and he entered in, and found there the shield and hauberk, and the sword and helm, that Turgon had left there by the command of Ulmo long before; and he arrayed himself in those arms, and went down to the shore. But there came a great storm out of the west, and out of that storm Ulmo the Lord of Waters arose in majesty and spoke to Tuor as he stood beside the sea. And Ulmo bade him depart from that place and seek out the hidden kingdom of Gondolin; and he gave Tuor a great cloak, to mantle him in shadow from the eyes of his enemies.
   But in the morning when the storm was passed, Tuor came upon an Elf standing beside the walls of Vinyamar; and he was Voronwe, son of Aranwe, of Gondolin, who sailed in the last ship that Turgon sent into the West. But when that ship returning at last out of the deep ocean foundered in the great storm within sight of the coasts of Middle-earth, Ulmo took him up, alone of all its mariners, and cast him onto the land near Vinyamar; and learning of the command laid upon Tuor by the Lord of Waters Voronwe was filled with wonder, and did not refuse him his guidance to the hidden door of Gondolin. Therefore they set out together from that place, and as the Fell Winter of that year came down upon them out of the north they went warily eastward under the eaves of the Mountains of Shadow/
   At length they came in their journeying to the Pools of Ivrin, and looked with grief on the defilement wrought there by the passage of Glaurung the Dragon; but even as they gazed upon it they saw one going northward in haste, and he was a tall Man, clad in black, and bearing a black sword. But they knew not who he was, nor anything of what had befallen in the south; and he passed them by, and they said no word.
   And at the last by the power that Ulmo set upon them they came to the hidden door of Gondolin, and passing down the tunnel they reached the inner gate, and were taken by the guard as prisoners. Then they were led up the mighty ravine of Orfalch Echor, barred by seven gates, and brought before Ecthelion of the Fountain, the warden of the great gate at the end of the climbing road; and there Tuor cast aside his cloak, and from the arms that he bore from Vinyamar it was seen that he was in truth one sent by Ulmo. Then Tuor looked down upon the fair vale of Tumladen, set as a green jewel amid the encircling hills; and he saw far off upon the rocky height of Amon Gwareth Gondolin the great, city of seven names, whose fame and glory is mightiest in song of all dwellings of the Elves in the Hither Lands. At the bidding of Ecthelion trumpets were blown on the towers of the great gate, and they echoed in the hills; and far off but clear there came a sound of answering trumpets blown upon the white walls of the city, flushed with the rose of dawn upon the plain.
   Thus it was that the son of Huor rode across Tumladen, and came to the gate of Gondolin; and passing up the wide stairways of the city he was brought at last to the Tower of the King, and looked upon the images of the Trees of Valinor. Then Tuor stood before Turgon son of Fingolfin, High King of the Noldor, and upon the King's right hand there stood Maeglin his sister-son, but upon his left hand sat Idril Celebrindal his daughter; and all that heard the voice of Tuor marvelled, doubting that this were in truth a Man of mortal race, for his words were the words of the Lord of Waters that came to him in that hour. And he gave warning to Turgon that the Curse of Mandos now hastened to its fulfilment, when all the works of the Noldor should perish; and he bade him depart, and abandon the fair and mighty city that he had built, and go down Sirion to the sea.
   Then Turgon pondered long the counsel of Ulmo, and there came into his mind the words that were spoken to him in Vinyamar: 'Love not too well the work of thy hands and the devices of thy heart; and remember that the true hope of the Noldor lieth in the West, and cometh from the Sea.' But Turgon was become proud, and Gondolin as beautiful as a memory of Elven Tirion, and he trusted still in its secret and impregnable strength, though even a Vala should gainsay it; and after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad the people of that city desired never again to mingle in the woes of Elves and Men without, nor to return through dread and danger into the West. Shut behind their pathless and enchanted hills they suffered none to enter, though he fled from Morgoth hate-pursued; and tidings of the lands beyond came to them faint and far, and they heeded them little. The spies of Angband sought for them in vain; and their dwelling was as a rumour, and a secret that none could find. Maeglin spoke ever against Tuor in the councils of the King, and his words seemed the more weighty in that they went with Turgon's heart; and at the last he rejected the bidding of Ulmo and refused his counsel. But in the warning of the Vala he heard again the words that were spoken before the departing Noldor on the coast of Araman long ago; and the fear of treason was wakened in Turgon's heart. Therefore in that time the very entrance to the hidden door in the Encircling Mountains was caused to be blocked up; and thereafter none went ever forth from Gondolin on any errand of peace or war, while that city stood. Tidings were brought by Thorondor Lord of Eagles of the fall of Nargothrond, and after of the slaying of Thingol and of Dior his heir, and of the ruin of Doriath; but Turgon shut his ear to word of the woes without, and vowed to march never at the side of any son of Feanor; and his people he forbade ever to pass the leaguer of the hills.
   And Tuor remained in Gondolin, for its bliss and its beauty and the wisdom of its people held mm enthralled; and he became mighty in stature and in mind, and learned deeply of the lore of the exiled Elves. Then the heart of Idril was turned to him, and his to her; and Maeglin's secret hatred grew ever greater, for he desired above all things to possess her, the only heir of the King of Gondolin. But so high did Tuor stand in the favour of the King that when he had dwelt there for seven years Turgon did not refuse him even the hand of his daughter; for though he would not heed the bidding of Ulmo, he perceived that the fate of the Noldor was wound with the one whom Ulmo had sent; and he did not forget the words that Huor spoke to him before the host of Gondolin departed from the Battle of Unnumbered Tears.
   Then there was made a great and joyful feast, for Tuor had won the hearts of all that people, save only of Maeglin and his secret following; and thus there came to pass the second union of Elves and Men.
   In the spring of the year after was born in Gondolin Earendil Halfelven, the son of Tuor and Idril Celebrindal; and that was five hundred years and three since the coming of the Noldor to Middle-earth. Of surpassing beauty was Earendil, for a light was in his face as the light of heaven, and he had the beauty and the wisdom of the Eldar and the strength and hardihood of the Men of old; and the Sea spoke ever in his ear and heart, even as with Tuor his father.
   Then the days of Gondolin were yet full of joy and peace; and none knew that the region wherein the Hidden Kingdom lay had been at last revealed to Morgoth by the cries of Hurin, when standing in the wilderness beyond the Encircling Mountains and finding no entrance he called on Turgon in despair. Thereafter the thought of Morgoth was bent unceasing on the mountainous land between Anach and the upper waters of Sirion, whither his servants had never passed; yet still no spy or creature out of Angband could come there because of the vigilance of the eagles, and Morgoth was thwarted in the fulfilment of his designs. But Idril Celebrindal was wise and far-seeing, and her heart misgave her, and foreboding crept upon her spirit as a cloud. Therefore in that time she let prepare a secret way, that should lead down from the city and passing out beneath the surface of the plain issue far beyond the walls, northward of Amon Gwareth; and she contrived it that the work was known but to few, and no whisper of it came to Maeglin's ears.
   Now on a time, when Earendil was yet young, Maeglin was lost. For he, as has been told, loved mining and quarrying after metals above all other craft; and he was master and leader of the Elves who worked in the mountains distant from the city, seeking after metals for their smithying of things both of peace and war. But often Maeglin went with few of his folk beyond the leaguer of the hills, and the King knew not that his bidding was defied; and thus it came to pass, as fate willed, that Maeglin was taken prisoner by Orcs, and brought to Angband, Maeglin was no weakling or craven, but the torment wherewith he was threatened cowed his spirit, and he purchased his life and freedom by revealing to Morgoth the very place of Gondolin and the ways whereby it might be found and assailed. Great indeed was the Joy of Morgoth, and to Maeglin he promised the lordship of Gondolin as his vassal, and the possession of Idril Celebrindal, when the city should be taken; and indeed desire for Idril and hatred for Tuor led Maeglin the easier to his treachery, most infamous in all the histories of the Elder Days. But Morgoth sent him back to Gondolin, lest any should suspect the betrayal, and so that Maeglin should aid the assault from within, when the hour came; and he abode in the halls of the King with smiling face and evil in his heart, while the darkness gathered ever deeper upon Idril.
   At last, in the year when Earendil was seven years old, Morgoth was ready, and he loosed upon Gondolin his Balrogs, and his Orcs, and his wolves; and with them came dragons of the brood of Glaurung, and they were become now many and terrible. The host of Morgoth came over the northern hills where the height was greatest and the watch least vigilant, and it came at night upon a time of festival, when all the people of Gondolin were upon the walls to await the rising sun, and sing their songs at its uplifting; for the morrow was the great feast that they named the Gates of Summer. But the red light mounted the hills in the north and not in the east; and there was no stay in the advance of the foe until they were beneath the very walls of Gondolin, and the city was beleaguered without hope. Of the deeds of desperate valour there done, by the chieftains of the noble houses and their warriors, and not least by Tuor, much is told in The Fall of Gondolin: of the battle of Ecthelion of the Fountain with Gothmog Lord of Balrogs in the very square of the King, where each slew the other, and of the defence of the tower of Turgon by the people of his household, until the tower was overthrown; and mighty was its fall and the fall of Turgon in its ruin.
   Tuor sought to rescue Idril from the sack of the city, but Maeglin had laid hands on her, and on Earendil; and Tuor fought with Maeglin on the walls, and cast him far out, and his body as it fell smote the rocky slopes of Amon Gwareth thrice ere it pitched into the flames below. Then Tuor and Idril led such remnants of the people of Gondolin as they could gather in the confusion of the burning down the secret way which Idril had prepared; and of that passage the captains of Angband knew nothing, and thought not that any fugitives would take a path towards the north and the highest parts of the mountains and the nighest to Angband. The fume of the burning, and the steam of the fair fountains of Gondolin withering in the flame of the dragons of the north, fell upon the vale of Tumladen in mournful mists; and thus was the escape of Tuor and his company aided, for there was still a long and open road to follow from the tunnel's mouth to the foothills of the mountains. Nonetheless they came thither, and beyond hope they climbed, in woe and misery, for the high places were cold and terrible, and they had among them many that were wounded, and women and children.
   There was a dreadful pass, Cirith Thoronath it was named, the Eagles' Cleft, where beneath the shadow of the highest peaks a narrow path wound its way; on the right hand it was walled by a precipice, and on the left a dreadful fall leapt into emptiness. Along that narrow way their march was strung, when they were ambushed by Orcs, for Morgoth had set watchers all about the encircling hills; and a Balrog was with them. Then dreadful was their plight, and hardly would they have been saved by the valour of yellow-haired Glorfindel, chief of the House of the Golden Flower of Gondolin, had not Thorondor come timely to their aid.
   Many are the songs that have been sung of the duel of Glorfindel with the Balrog upon a pinnacle of rock in that high place; and both fell to ruin in the abyss. But the eagles coming stooped upon the Orcs, and drove them shrieking back; and all were slain or cast into the deeps, so that rumour of the escape from Gondolin came not until long after to Morgoth's ears. Then Thorondor bore up Glorfindel's body out of the abyss, and they buried him in a mound of stones beside the pass; and a green turf came there, and yellow flowers bloomed upon it amid the barrenness of stone, until the world was changed.
   Thus led by Tuor son of Huor the remnant of Gondolin passed over the mountains, and came down into the Vale of Sirion; and fleeing southward by weary and dangerous marches they came at length to Nan-tathren, the Land of Willows, for the power of Ulmo yet ran in the great river, and it was about them. There they rested a while, and were healed of their hurts and weariness; but their sorrow could not be healed. And they made a feast in memory of Gondolin and of the Elves that had perished there, the maidens, and the wives, and the warriors of the King; and for Glorfindel the beloved many were the songs they sang, under the willows of Nan-tathren in the waning of the year. There Tuor made a song for Earendil his son, concerning the coming of Ulmo the Lord of Waters to the shores of Nevrast aforetime; and the sea-longing woke in his heart, and in his son's also. Therefore Idril and Tuor departed from Nan-tathren, and went southwards down the river to the sea; and they dwelt there by the mouths of Sirion, and joined their people to the company of Elwing Dior's daughter, that had fled thither but a little while before. And when the tidings came to Balar of the fall of Gondolin and the death of Turgon, Ereinion Gil-galad son of Fingon was named High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth.
   But Morgoth thought that his triumph was fulfilled, recking little of the sons of Feanor, and of their oath, which had harmed him never and turned always to his mightiest aid; and in his black thought he laughed, regretting not the one Silmaril that he had lost, for by it as he deemed the last shred of the people of the Eldar should vanish from Middle-earth and trouble it no more. If he knew of the dwelling by the waters of Sirion, he gave no sign, biding his time, and waiting upon the working of oath and lie. Yet by Sirion and the sea there grew up an Elven-folk, the gleanings of Doriath and Gondolin; and from Balar the mariners of Cirdan came among them, and they took to the waves and the building of ships, dwelling ever nigh to the coasts of Arvernien, under the shadow of Ulmo's hand.
   And it is said that in that time Ulmo came to Valinor out of the deep waters, and spoke there to the Valar of the need of the Elves; and he called on them to forgive them, and rescue them from the overmastering might of Morgoth, and win back the Silmarils, wherein alone now bloomed the light of the Days of Bliss when the Two Trees still shone in Valinor. But Manwe moved not; and of the counsels of his heart what tale shall tell?
   The wise have said that the hour was not yet come, and that only one speaking in person for the cause of both Elves and Men, pleading for pardon on their misdeeds and pity on their woes, might move the counsels of the Powers; and the oath of Feanor perhaps even Manwe could not loose, until it found its end, and the sons of Feanor relinquished the.Silmarils, upon which they had laid their ruthless claim. For the light which lit the Silmarils the Valar themselves had made.
   In those days Tuor felt old age creep upon him, and ever a longing for the deeps of the Sea grew stronger in his heart. Therefore he built a great ship, and he named it Earrame, which is Sea-Wing; and with Idril Celebrindal he set sail into the sunset and the West, and came no more into any tale or song. But in after days it was sung that Tuor alone of mortal Men was numbered among the elder race, and was joined with the Noldor, whom he loved; and his fate is sundered from the fate of Men.
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Poruke 18761
Zastava Srbija
Chapter 24
Of the Voyage of Earendil and
the War of Wrath

Bright Earendil was then lord of the people that dwelt nigh to Sirion's mouths; and he took to wife Elwing the fair, and she bore to him Elrond and Elros, who are called the Half-elven. Yet Earendil could not rest, and his voyages about the shores of the Hither Lands eased not his unquiet. Two purposes grew in his heart, blended as one in longing for the wide Sea: he sought to sail thereon, seeking after Tuor and Idril who returned not; and he thought to find perhaps the last shore, and bring ere he died the message of Elves and Men to the Valar in the West, that should move their hearts to pity for the sorrows of Middle-earth.
   Now Earendil became fast in friendship with Cirdan the Shipwright, who dwelt on the Isle of Balar with those of his people who escaped from the sack of the Havens of Brithombar and Eglarest. With the aid of Cirdan Earendil built Vingilot, the Foam-flower, fairest of the ships of song; golden were its oars and white its timbers, hewn in the birchwoods of Nimbrethil, and its sails were as the argent moon. In the Lay of Earendil is many a thing sung of his adventures in the deep and in lands untrodden, and in many seas and in many isles; but Elwing was not with him, and she sat in sorrow by the mouths of Sirion.
   Earendil found not Tuor nor Idril, nor came he ever on that journey to the shores of Valinor, defeated by shadows and enchantment, driven by repelling winds, until in longing for Elwing he turned homeward towards the coast of Beleriand. And his heart bade him haste, for a sudden fear had fallen on him out of dreams; and the winds that before he had striven with might not now bear him back as swift as his desire.
   Now when first the tidings came to Maedhros that Elwing yet lived, and dwelt in possession of the Silmaril by the mouths of Sirion, he repenting of the deeds in Doriath withheld his hand. But in time the knowledge of their oath unfulfilled returned to torment him and his brothers, and gathering from their wandering hunting-paths they sent messages to the Havens of friendship and yet of stern demand. Then Elwing and the people of Sirion would not yield the jewel which Beren had won and Luthien had worn, and for which Dior the fair was slain; and least of all while Earendil their lord was on the sea, for it seemed to them that in the Silmaril lay the healing and the blessing that had come upon their houses and their ships. And so there came to pass the last and cruellest of the slayings of Elf by Elf; and that was the third of the great wrongs achieved by the accursed oath.
   For the sons of Feanor that yet lived came down suddenly upon the exiles of Gondolin and the remnant of Doriath, and destroyed them. In that battle some of their people stood aside, and some few rebelled and were slain upon the other part aiding Elwing against their own lords (for such was the sorrow and confusion in the hearts of the Eldar in those days); but Maedhros and Maglor won the day, though they alone remained thereafter of the sons of Feanor, for both Amrod and Amras were slain. Too late the ships of Cirdan and Gil-galad the High King came hasting to the aid of the Elves of Sirion; and Elwing was gone, and her sons. Then such few of that people as did not perish in the assault joined themselves to Gil-galad, and went with him to Balar; and they told that Elros and Elrond were taken captive, but Elwing with the Silmaril upon her breast had cast herself into the sea.
   Thus Maedhros and Maglor gained not the jewel; but it was not lost. For Ulmo bore up Elwing out of the waves, and he gave her the likeness of a great white bird, and upon her breast there shone as a star the Silmaril, as she flew over the water to seek Earendil her beloved. On a time of night Earendil at the helm of his ship saw her come towards him, as a white cloud exceeding swift beneath the moon, as a star over the sea moving in strange course, a pale flame on wings of storm. And it is sung that she fell from the air upon the timbers of Vingilot, in a swoon, nigh unto death for the urgency of her speed, and Earendil took her to his bosom; but in the morning with marvelling eyes he beheld his wife in her own form beside him with her hair upon his face, and she slept.
   Great was the sorrow of Earendil and Elwing for the ruin of the havens of Sirion, and the captivity of their sons, and they feared that they would be slain; but it was not so. For Maglor took pity upon Elros and Elrond, and he cherished them, and love grew after between them, as little might be thought; but Maglor's heart was sick and weary with the burden of the dreadful oath.
   Yet Earendil saw now no hope left in the lands of Middle-earth, and he turned again in despair and came not home, but sought back once more to Valinor with Elwing at his side. He stood now most often at the prow of Vingilot, and the Silmaril was bound upon his brow; and ever its light grew greater as they drew into the West. And the wise have said that it was by reason of the power of that holy jewel that they came in time to waters that no vessels save those of the Teleri had known; and they came to the Enchanted Isles and escaped their enchantment; and they came into the Shadowy Seas and passed their shadows, and they looked upon Tol Eressea the Lonely Isle, but tarried not; and at the last they cast anchor in the Bay of Eldamar, and the Teleri saw the coming of that ship out of the East and they were amazed, gazing from afar upon the light of the Silmaril, and it was very great. Then Earendil, first of living Men, landed on the immortal shores; and he spoke there to Elwing and to those that were with him, and they were three mariners who had sailed all the seas besides him: Falathar, Erellont, and Aerandir were their names. And Earendil said to them: 'Here none but myself shall set foot, lest you fall under the wrath of the Valar. But that peril I will take on myself alone, for the sake of the Two Kindreds.'
   But Elwing answered: 'Then would our paths be sundered for ever; but all thy perils I will take on myself also.' And she leaped into the white foam and ran towards him; but Earendil was sorrowful, for he feared the anger of the Lords of the West upon any of Middle-earth that should dare to pass the leaguer of Aman. And there they bade farewell to the companions of their voyage, and were taken from them for ever.
   Then Earendil said to Elwing: 'Await me here; for one only may bring the message that it is my fate to bear.' And he went up alone into the land, and came into the Calacirya, and it seemed to him empty and silent; for even as Morgoth and Ungoliant came in ages past, so now Earendil had come at a time of festival, and wellnigh all the Elvenfolk were gone to Valimar, or were gathered in the halls of Manwe upon Taniquetil, and few were left to keep watch upon the walls of Tirion.
   But some there were who saw him from afar, and the great light that he bore; and they went in haste to Valimar. But Earendil climbed the green hill of Tuna and found it bare; and he entered into the streets of Tirion, and they were empty; and his heart was heavy, for he feared that some evil had come even to the Blessed Realm. He walked in the deserted ways of Tirion, and the dust upon his raiment and his shoes was a dust of diamonds, and he shone and glistened as he climbed the long white stairs. And he called aloud in many tongues, both of Elves and Men, but there were none to answer him. Therefore he turned back at last towards the sea; but even as he took the shoreward road one stood upon the hill and called to him in a great voice, crying:
   'Hail Earendil, of mariners most renowned, the looked for that cometh at unawares, the longed for that cometh beyond hope! Hail Earendil, bearer of light before the Sun and Moon! Splendour of the Children of Earth, star in the darkness, jewel in the sunset, radiant in the morning!'
   That voice was the voice of Eonwe, herald of Manwe, and he came from Valimar, and summoned Earendil to come before the Powers of Arda. And Earendil went into Valinor and to the halls of Valimar, and never again set foot upon the lands of Men. Then the Valar took counsel together, and they summoned Ulmo from the deeps of the sea; and Earendil stood before their faces, and delivered the errand of the Two Kindreds. Pardon he asked for the Noldor and pity for their great sorrows, and mercy upon Men and Elves and succour in their need. And his prayer was granted.
   It is told among the Elves that after Earendil had departed, seeking Elwing his wife, Mandos spoke concerning his fate; and he said: 'Shall mortal Man step living upon the undying lands, and yet live?' But Ulmo said: 'For this he was born into the world. And say unto me: whether is he Earendil Tuor's son of the line of Hador, or the son of Idril, Turgon's daughter, of the Elven-house of Finwe?' And Mandos answered: 'Equally the Noldor, who went wilfully into exile, may not return hither.'
   But when all was spoken, Manwe gave judgement, and he said: 'In this matter the power of doom is given to me. The peril that he ventured for love of the Two Kindreds shall not fall upon Earendil, nor shall it fall upon Elwing his wife, who entered into peril for love of him; but they shall not walk again ever among Elves or Men in the Outer Lands. And this is my decree concerning them: to Earendil and to Elwing, and to their sons, shall be given leave each to choose freely to which kindred their fates shall be joined, and under which kindred they shall be judged.'
   Now when Earendil was long time gone Elwing became lonely and afraid; and wandering by the margin of the sea she came near to Alqualonde, where lay the Telerin fleets. There the Teleri befriended her, and they listened to her tales of Doriath and Gondolin and the griefs of Beleriand, and they were filled with pity and wonder; and there Earendil returning found her, at the Haven of the Swans. But ere long they were summoned to Valimar; and there the decree of the Elder King was declared to them.
   Then Earendil said to Elwing: 'Choose thou, for now I am weary of the world.' And Elwing chose to be judged among the Firstborn Children of Iluvatar, because of Luthien; and for her sake Earendil chose alike, though his heart was rather with the kindred of Men and the people of his father. Then at the bidding of the Valar Eonwe went to the shore of Aman, where the companions of Earendil still remained, awaiting tidings; and he took a boat, and the three mariners were set therein, and the Valar drove them away into the East with a great wind. But they took Vingilot, and hallowed it, and bore it away through Valinor to the uttermost rim of the world; and there it passed through the Door of Night and was lifted up even into the oceans of heaven.
   Now fair and marvellous was that vessel made, and it was filled with a wavering flame, pure and bright; and Earendil the Mariner sat at the helm, glistening with dust of elven-gems, and the Silmaril was bound upon his brow. Far he journeyed in that ship, even into the starless voids; but most often was he seen at morning or at evening, glimmering in sunrise or sunset, as he came back to Valinor from voyages beyond the confines of the world.
   On those journeys Elwing did not go, for she might not endure the cold and the pathless voids, and she loved rather the earth and the sweet winds that blow on sea and hill. Therefore there was built for her a white tower northward upon the borders of the Sundering Seas; and thither at times all the sea-birds of the earth repaired. And it is said that Elwing learned the tongues of birds, who herself had once worn their shape; and they taught her the craft of flight, and her wings were of white and silver-grey. And at times, when Earendil returning drew near again to Arda, she would fly to meet him, even as she had flown long ago, when she was rescued from the sea. Then the far-sighted among the Elves that dwelt in the Lonely Isle would see her like a white bird, shining, rose-stained in the sunset, as she soared in joy to greet the coming of Vingilot to haven.
   Now when first Vingilot was set to sail in the seas of heaven, it rose unlocked for, glittering and bright; and the people of Middle-earth beheld it from afar and wondered, and they took it for a sign, and called it Gil-Estel, the Star of High Hope. And when this new star was seen at evening, Maedhros spoke to Maglor his brother, and he said: 'Surely that is a Silmaril that shines now in the West?'
   And Maglor answered: 'If it be truly the Silmaril which we saw cast into the sea that rises again by the power of the Valar, then let us be glad; for its glory is seen now by many, and is yet secure from all evil.' Then the Elves looked up, and despaired no longer; but Morgoth was filled with doubt.
   Yet it is said that Morgoth looked not for the assault that came upon him from the West; for so great was his pride become that he deemed that none would ever again come with open war against him. Moreover he thought that he had for ever estranged the Noldor from the Lords of the West, and that content in their blissful realm the Valar would heed no more his kingdom in the world without; for to him that is pitiless the deeds of pity are ever strange and beyond reckoning. But the host of the Valar prepared for battle; and beneath their white banners marched the Vanyar, the people of Ingwe, and those also of the Noldor who never departed from Valinor, whose leader was Finarfin the son of Finwe. Few of the Teleri were willing to go forth to war, for they remembered the slaying at the Swan-haven, and the rape of their ships; but they hearkened to Elwing, who was the daughter of Dior Eluchil and come of their own kindred, and they sent mariners enough to sail the ships that bore the host of Valinor east over the sea. Yet they stayed aboard their vessels, and none of them set foot upon the Hither Lands.
   Of the march of the host of the Valar to the north of Middle-earth little is said in any tale; for among them went none of those Elves who had dwelt and suffered in the Hither Lands, and who made the histories of those days that still are known; and tidings of these things they only learned long afterwards from their kinsfolk in Aman. But at the last the might of Valinor came up out of the West, and the challenge of the trumpets of Eonwe filled the sky; and Beleriand was ablaze with the glory of their arms, for the host of the Valar were arrayed in forms young and fair and terrible, and the mountains rang beneath their feet.
   The meeting of the hosts of the West and of the North is named the Great Battle, and the War of Wrath. There was marshalled the whole power of the Throne of Morgoth, and it had become great beyond count, so that Anfauglith could not contain it; and all the North was aflame with war.
   But it availed him not. The Balrogs were destroyed, save some few that fled and hid themselves in caverns inaccessible at the roots of the earth; and the uncounted legions of the Orcs perished like straw in a great fire, or were swept like shrivelled leaves before a burning wind. Few remained to trouble the world for long years after. And such few as were left of the three houses of the Elf-friends, Fathers of Men, fought upon the part of the Valar; and they were avenged in those days for Baragund and Barahir, Galdor and Gundor, Huor and Hurin, and many others of their lords. But a great part of the sons of Men, whether of the people of Uldor or others new-come out of the east, marched with the Enemy; and the Elves do not forget it.
   Then, seeing that his hosts were overthrown and his power dispersed, Morgoth quailed, and he dared not to come forth himself. But he loosed upon his foes the last desperate assault that he had prepared, and out of the pits of Angband there issued the winged dragons, that had not before been seen; and so sudden and ruinous was the onset of that dreadful fleet that the host of the Valar was driven back, for the coming of the dragons was with great thunder, and lightning, and a tempest of fire.
   But Earendil came, shining with white flame, and about Vingilot were gathered all the great birds of heaven and Thorondor was their captain, and there was battle in the air all the day and through a dark night of doubt. Before the rising of the sun Earendil slew Ancalagon the Black, the mightiest of the dragon-host, and cast him from the sky; and he fell upon the towers of Thangorodrim, and they were broken in his ruin. Then the sun rose, and the host of the Valar prevailed, and well-nigh all the dragons were destroyed; and all the pits of Morgoth were broken and unroofed, and the might of the Valar descended into the deeps of the earth. There Morgoth stood at last at bay, and yet unvaliant. He fled into the deepest of his mines, and sued for peace and pardon; but his feet were hewn from under him, and he was hurled upon his face. Then he was bound with the chain Angainor which he had worn aforetime, and his iron crown they beat into a collar for his neck, and his head was bowed upon his knees. And the two Silmarils which remained to Morgoth were taken from his crown, and they shone unsullied beneath the sky; and Eonwe took them, and guarded them.
   Thus an end was made of the power of Angband in the North, and' the evil realm was brought to naught; and out of the deep prisons a multitude of slaves came forth beyond all hope into the light of day, and they looked upon a world that was changed. For so great was the fury of those adversaries that the northern regions of the western world were rent asunder, and the sea roared in through many chasms, and there was confusion and great noise; and rivers perished or found new paths, and the valleys were upheaved and the hills trod down; and Sirion was no more.
   Then Eonwe as herald of the Elder King summoned the Elves of Beleriand to depart from Middle-earth. But Maedhros and Maglor would not hearken, and they prepared, though now with weariness and loathing, to attempt in despair the fulfilment of their oath; for they would have given battle for the Silmarils, were they withheld, even against the victorious host of Valinor, even though they stood alone against all the world. And they sent a message therefore to Eonwe, bidding him yield up now those jewels which of old Feanor their father made and Morgoth stole from him.
   But Eonwe answered that the right to the work of their father, which the sons of Feanor formerly possessed, had now perished, because of their many and merciless deeds, being blinded by their oath, and most of all because of their slaying of Dior and the assault upon the Havens. The light of the Silmarils should go now into the West, whence it came in the beginning; and to Valinor must Maedhros and Maglor return, and there abide the judgement of the Valar, by whose decree alone would Eonwe yield the jewels from his charge. Then Maglor desired indeed to submit, for his heart was sorrowful, and he said: The oath says not that we may not bide our time, and it may be that in Valinor all shall be forgiven and forgot, and we shall come into our own in peace.
   But Maedhros answered that if they returned to Aman but the favour of the Valar were withheld from them, then their oath would still remain, but its fulfilment be beyond all hope; and he said: 'Who can tell to what dreadful doom we shall come, if we disobey the Powers in their own land, or purpose ever to bring war again into their holy realm?'
   Yet Maglor still held back, saying: 'If Manwe and Varda themselves deny the fulfilment of an oath to which we named them in witness, is it not made void?'
   And Maedhros answered: 'But how shall our voices reach to Iluvatar beyond the Circles of the World? And by Iluvatar we swore in our madness, and called the Everlasting Darkness upon us, if we kept not our word. Who shall release us?'
   'If none can release us,' said Maglor, 'then indeed the Everlasting Darkness shall be our lot, whether we keep our oath or break it; but less evil shall we do in the breaking.'
   Yet he yielded at last to the will of Maedhros, and they took counsel together how they should lay hands on the Silmarils. And they disguised themselves, and came in the night to the camp of Eonwe, and crept into the place where the Silmarils were guarded; and they slew the guards, and laid hands on the jewels. Then all the camp was raised against them, and they prepared to die, defending themselves until the last. But Eonwe would not permit the slaying of the sons of Feanor; and departing unfought they fled far away. Each of them took to himself a Silmaril, for they said: 'Since one is lost to us, and but two remain, and we two alone of our brothers, so is it plain that fate would have us share the heirlooms of our father.'
   But the jewel burned the hand of Maedhros in pain unbearable; and he perceived that it was as Eonwe had said, and that his right thereto had become void, and that the oath was vain. And being in anguish and despair he cast himself into a gaping chasm filled with fire, and so ended; and the Silmaril that he bore was taken into the bosom of the Earth,
   And it is told of Maglor that he could not endure the pain with which the Silmaril tormented him; and he cast it at last into the Sea, and thereafter he wandered ever upon the shores, singing in pain and regret beside the waves. For Maglor was mighty among the singers of old, named only after Daeron of Doriath; but he came never back among the people of the Elves. And thus it came to pass that the Silmarils found their long homes: one in the airs of heaven, and one in the fires of the heart of the world, and one in the deep waters.
   In those days there was a great building of ships upon the shores of the Western Sea; and thence in many a fleet the Eldar set sail into the West, and came never back to the lands of weeping and of war. And the Vanyar returned beneath their white banners, and were borne in triumph to Valinor; but their joy in victory was diminished, for they returned without the Silmarils from Morgoth's crown, and they knew that those jewels could not be found or brought together again unless the world be broken and remade.
   And when they came into the West the Elves of Beleriand dwelt upon Tol Eressea, the Lonely Isle, that looks both west and east; whence they might come even to Valinor. They were admitted again to the love of Manwe and the pardon of the Valar; and the Teleri forgave their ancient grief, and the curse was laid to rest.
   Yet not all the Eldalie were willing to forsake the Hither Lands where they had long suffered and long dwelt; and some lingered many an age in Middle-earth. Among those were Cirdan the Shipwright, and Celeborn of Doriath, with Galadriel his wife, who alone remained of those who led the Noldor to exile in Beleriand. In Middle-earth dwelt also Gil-galad the High King, and with him was Elrond Half-elven, who chose, as was granted to him, to be numbered among the Eldar; but Elros his brother chose to abide with Men. And from these brethren alone has come among Men the blood of the Firstborn and a strain of the spirits divine that were before Arda; for they were the sons of Elwing, Dior's daughter, Luthien's son, child of Thingol and Melian; and Earendil their father was the son of Idril Celebrindal, Turgon's daughter of Gondolin.
   But Morgoth himself the Valar thrust through the Door of Night beyond the Walls of the World, into the Timeless Void; and a guard is set for ever on those walls, and Earendil keeps watch upon the ramparts of the sky. Yet the lies that Melkor, the mighty and accursed, Morgoth Bauglir, the Power of Terror and of Hate, sowed in the hearts of Elves and Men are a seed that does not die and cannot be destroyed; and ever and anon it sprouts anew, and will bear dark fruit even unto the latest days.
   Here ends the SILMARILLION. If it has passed from the high and the beautiful to darkness and ruin, that was of old the fate of Arda Marred; and if any change shall come and the Marring be amended, Manwe and Varda may know; but they have not revealed it, and it is not declared in the dooms of Mandos.
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The Downfall of Numenor

   It is said by the Eldar that Men came into the world in the time of the Shadow of Morgoth, and they fell swiftly under his dominion; for he sent his emissaries among them, and they listened to his evil and cunning words, and they worshipped the Darkness and yet feared it. But there were some that turned from evil and left the lands of their kindred, and wandered ever westward; for they had heard a rumour that in the West there was a light which the Shadow could not dim. The servants of Morgoth pursued them with hatred, and their ways were long and hard; yet they came at last to the lands that look upon the Sea, and they entered Beleriand in the days of the War of the Jewels. The Edain these were named in the Sindarin tongue; and they became friends and allies of the Eldar, and did deeds of great valour in the war against Morgoth.
   Of them was sprung, upon the side of his fathers, Bright Earendil; and in the Lay of Earendil it is told how at the last, when the victory of Morgoth was almost complete, he built his ship Vingilot, that Men called Rothinzil, and voyaged upon the unsailed seas, seeking ever for Valinor; for he desired to speak before the Powers on behalf of the Two Kindreds, that the Valar might have pity on them and send them help in their uttermost need. Therefore by Elves and Men he is called Earendil the Blessed, for he achieved his quest after long labours and many perils, and from Valinor there came the host of the Lords of the West. But Earendil came never back to the lands that he had loved.
   In the Great Battle when at last Morgoth was overthrown and Thangorodrim was broken, the Edain alone of the kindreds of Men fought for the Valar, whereas many others fought for Morgoth. And after the victory of the Lords of the West those of the evil Men who were not destroyed fled back into the east, where many of their race were still wandering in the unharvested lands, wild and lawless, refusing alike the summons of the Valar and of Morgoth. And the evil Men came among them, and cast over them a shadow of fear, and they took them for kings. Then the Valar forsook for a time the Men of Middle-earth who had refused their summons and had taken the friends of Morgoth to be their masters; and Men dwelt in darkness and were troubled by many evil things that Morgoth had devised in the days of his dominion: demons, and dragons, and misshapen beasts, and the unclean Orcs that are mockeries of the Children of Iluvatar. And the lot of Men was unhappy.
   But Manwe put forth Morgoth and shut him beyond the World in the Void that is without; and he cannot himself return again into the World, present and visible, while the Lords of the West are still enthroned. Yet the seeds that he had planted still grew and sprouted, bearing evil fruit, if any would tend them. For his will remained and guided his servants, moving them ever to thwart the will of the Valar and to destroy those that obeyed them. This the Lords of the West knew full well. When therefore Morgoth had been thrust forth, they held council concerning the ages that should come after. The Eldar they summoned to return into the West, and those that hearkened to the summons dwelt in the Isle of Eressea; and there is in that land a haven that is named Avallone, for it is of all cities the nearest to Valinor, and the tower of Avallone is the first sight that the mariner beholds when at last he draws nigh to the Undying Lands over the leagues of the Sea. To the Fathers of Men of the three faithful houses rich reward also was given. Eonwe came among them and taught them; and they were given wisdom and power and life more enduring than any others of mortal race have possessed. A land was made for the Edain to dwell in, neither part of Middle-earth nor of Valinor, for it was sundered from either by a wide sea; yet it was nearer to Valinor. It was raised by Osse out of the depths of the Great Water, and it was established by Aule and enriched by Yavanna; and the Eldar brought thither flowers and fountains out of Tol Eressea. That land the Valar called Andor, the Land of Gift; and the Star of Earendil shone bright in the West as a token that all was made ready, and as a guide over the sea; and Men marvelled to see that silver flame in the paths of the Sun.
   Then the Edain set sail upon the deep waters, following the Star; and the Valar laid a peace upon the sea for many days, and sent sunlight and a sailing wind, so that the waters glittered before the eyes of the Edain like rippling glass, and the foam flew like snow before the stems of their ships. But so bright was Rothinzil that even at morning Men could see it glimmering in the West, and in the cloudless night it shone alone, for no other star could stand beside it. And setting their course towards it the Edain came at last over leagues of sea and saw afar the land that was prepared for them, Andor, the Land of Gift, shimmering in a golden haze. Then they went up out of the sea and found a country fair and fruitful, and they were glad. And they called that land Elenna, which is Starwards; but also Anadune, which is Westernesse, Numenore in the High Eldarin tongue.
   This was the beginning of that people that in the Grey-elven speech are called the Dunedain: the Numenoreans, Kings among Men. But they did not thus escape from the doom of death that Iluvatar had set upon all Mankind, and they were mortal still, though their years were long, and they knew no sickness, ere the shadow fell upon them. Therefore they grew wise and glorious, and in all things more like to the Firstborn than any other of the kindreds of Men; and they were tall, taller than the tallest of the sons of Middle-earth; and the light of their eyes was like the bright stars. But their numbers increased only slowly in the land, for though daughters and sons were born to them, fairer than their fathers, yet their children were few.
   Of old the chief city and haven of Numenor was in the midst of its western coasts, and it was called Andunie because it faced the sunset. But in the midst of the land was a mountain tall and steep, and it was named the Meneltarma, the Pillar of Heaven, and upon it was a high place that was hallowed to Eru Iluvatar, and it was open and unroofed, and no other temple or fane was there in the land of the Numenoreans. At the feet of the mountain were built the tombs of the Kings, and hard by upon a hill was Armenelos, fairest of cities, and there stood the tower and the citadel that was raised by Elros son of Earendil, whom the Valar appointed to be the first King of the Dunedain.
   Now Elros and Elrond his brother were descended from the Three Houses of the Edain, but in part also both from the Eldar and the Maiar; for Idril of Gondolin and Luthien daughter of Melian were their fore-mothers. The Valar indeed may not withdraw the gift of death, which comes to Men from Iluvatar, but in the matter of the Half-elven Iluvatar gave to them the judgement; and they judged that to the sons of Earendil should be given choice of their own destiny. And Elrond chose to remain with the Firstborn, and to him the life of the Firstborn was granted. But to Elros, who chose to be a king of Men, still a great span of years was allotted, many times that of the Men of Middle-earth; and all his line, the kings and lords of the royal house, had long life even according to the measure of the Numenoreans. But Elros lived five hundred years, and ruled the Numenoreans four hundred years and ten.
   Thus the years passed, and while Middle-earth went backward and light and wisdom faded, the Dunedain dwelt under the protection of the Valar and in the friendship of the Eldar, and they increased in stature both of mind and body. For though this people used still their own speech, their kings and lords knew and spoke also the Elven tongue, which they had learned in the days of their alliance, and thus they held converse still with the Eldar, whether of Eressea or of the west-lands of Middle-earth. And the loremasters among them learned also the High Eldarin tongue of the Blessed Realm, in which much story and song was preserved from the beginning of the world; and they made letters and scrolls and books, and wrote in them many things of wisdom and wonder in the high tide of their realm, of which all is now forgot. So it came to pass that, beside their own names, all the lords of the Numenoreans had also Eldarin names; and the like with the cities and fair places that they founded in Numenor and on the shores of the Hither Lands.
   For the Dunedain became mighty in crafts, so that if they had had the mind they could easily have surpassed the evil kings of Middle-earth in the making of war and the forging of weapons; but they were become men of peace. Above all arts they nourished shipbuilding and sea-craft, and they became mariners whose like shall never be again since the world was diminished; and voyaging upon the wide seas was the chief feat and adventure of their hardy men in the gallant days of their youth.
   But the Lords of Valinor forbade them to sail so far westward that the coasts of Numenor could no longer be seen; and for long the Dunedain were content, though they did not fully understand the purpose of this ban. But the design of Manwe was that the Numenoreans should not be tempted to seek for the Blessed Realm, nor desire to overpass the limits set to their bliss, becoming enamoured of the immortality of the Valar and the Eldar and the lands where all things endure.
   For in those days Valinor still remained in the world visible, and there Iluvatar permitted the Valar to maintain upon Earth an abiding place, a memorial of that which might have been if Morgoth had not cast his shadow on the world. This the Numenoreans knew full well; and at times, when all the air was clear and the sun was in the east, they would look out and descry far off in the west a city white-shining on a distant shore, and a great harbour and a tower. For in those days the Numenoreans were far-sighted; yet even so it was only the keenest eyes among them that could see this vision, from the Meneltarma, maybe, or from some tall ship that lay off their western coast as far as it was lawful for them to go. For they did not dare to break the Ban of the Lords of the West. But the wise among them knew that this distant land was not indeed the Blessed Realm of Valinor, but was Avallone, the haven of the Eldar upon Eressea, easternmost of the Undying Lands. And thence at times the Firstborn still would come sailing to Numenor in oarless boats, as white birds flying from the sunset. And they brought to Numenor many gifts: birds of song, and fragrant flowers, and herbs of great virtue. And a seedling they brought of Celeborn, the White Tree that grew in the midst of Eressea; and that was in its turn a seedling of Galathilion the Tree of Tuna, the image of Telperion that Yavanna gave to the Eldar in the Blessed Realm. And the tree grew and blossomed in the courts of the King in Armenelos; Nimloth it was named, and flowered in the evening, and the shadows of night it filled with its fragrance.
   Thus it was that because of the Ban of the Valar the voyages of the Dunedain in those days went ever eastward and not westward, from the darkness of the North to the heats of the South, and beyond the South to the Nether Darkness; and they came even into the inner seas, and sailed about Middle-earth and glimpsed from their high prows the Gates of Morning in the East. And the Dunedain came at times to the shores of the Great Lands, and they took pity on the forsaken world of Middle-earth; and the Lords of Numenor set foot again upon the western shores in the Dark Years of Men, and none yet dared to withstand them. For most of the Men of that age that sat under the Shadow were now grown weak and fearful. And coming among them the Numenoreans taught them many things. Corn and wine they brought, and they instructed Men in the sowing of seed and the grinding of grain, in the hewing of wood and the shaping of stone, and in the ordering of their life, such as it might be in the lands of swift death and little bliss.
   Then the Men of Middle-earth were comforted, and here and there upon the western shores the houseless woods drew back, and Men shook off the yoke of the offspring of Morgoth, and unlearned their terror of the dark. And they revered the memory of the tall Sea-kings, and when they had departed they called them gods, hoping for their return; for at that time the Numenoreans dwelt never long in Middle-earth, nor made there as yet any habitation of their own. Eastward they must sail, but ever west their hearts returned.
   Now this yearning grew ever greater with the years; and the Numenoreans began to hunger for the undying city that they saw from afar, and the desire of everlasting life, to escape from death and the ending of delight, grew strong upon them; and ever as their power and glory grew greater their unquiet increased. For though the Valar had rewarded the Dunedain with long life, they could not take from them the weariness of the world that comes at last, and they died, even their kings of the seed of Earendil; and the span of their lives was brief in the eyes of the Eldar. Thus it was that a shadow fell upon them: in which maybe the will of Morgoth was at work that still moved in the world. And the Numenoreans began to murmur, at first in their hearts, and then in open words, against the doom of Men, and most of all against the Ban which forbade them to sail into the West.
   And they said among themselves: 'Why do the Lords of the West sit there in peace unending, while we must die and go we know not whither, leaving our home and all that we have made? And the Eldar die not, even those that rebelled against the Lords. And since we have mastered all seas, and no water is so wild or so wide that our ships cannot overcome it, why should we not go to Avallone and greet there our friends?'
   And some there were who said: 'Why should we not go even to Aman, and taste there, were it but for a day, the bliss of the Powers? Have we not become mighty among the people of Arda?'
   The Eldar reported these words to the Valar, and Manwe was grieved, seeing a cloud gather on the noontide of Numenor. And he sent messengers to the Dunedain, who spoke earnestly to the King, and to all who would listen, concerning the fate and fashion of the world.
   'The Doom of the World,' they said, 'One alone can change who made it. And were you so to voyage that escaping all deceits and snares you came indeed to Aman, the Blessed Realm, little would it profit you. For it is not the land of Manwe that makes its people deathless, but the Deathless that dwell therein have hallowed the land; and there you would but wither and grow weary the sooner, as moths in a light too strong and steadfast.'
   But the King said: 'And does not Earendil, my forefather, live? Or is he not in the land of Aman?'
   To which they answered: 'You know that he has a fate apart, and was adjudged to the Firstborn who die not; yet this also is his doom that he can never return again to mortal lands. Whereas you and your people are not of the Firstborn, but are mortal Men as Iluvatar made you. Yet it seems that you desire now to have the good of both kindreds, to sail to Valinor when you will, and to return when you please to your homes. That cannot be. Nor can the Valar take away the gifts of Iluvatar. The Eldar, you say, are unpunished, and even those who rebelled do not die. Yet that is to them neither reward nor punishment, but the fulfilment of their being. They cannot escape, and are bound to this world, never to leave it so long as it lasts, for its life is theirs. And you are punished for the rebellion of Men, you say, in which you had small part, and so it is that you die. But that was not at first appointed for a punishment. Thus you escape, and leave the world, and are not bound to it, in hope or in weariness. Which of us therefore should envy the others?"
   And the Numenoreans answered: 'Why should we not envy the Valar, or even the least of the Deathless? For of us is required a blind trust, and a hope without assurance, knowing not what lies before us in a little while. And yet we also love the Earth and would not lose it.'
   Then the Messengers said: 'Indeed the mind of Iluvatar concerning you is not known to the Valar, and he has not revealed all things that are to come. But this we hold to be true, that your home is not here, neither in the Land of Aman nor anywhere within the Circles of the World. And the Doom of Men, that they should depart, was at first a gift of Iluvatar. It became a grief to them only because coming under the shadow of Morgoth it seemed to them that they were surrounded by a great darkness, of which they were afraid; and some grew wilful and proud and would not yield, until life was reft from them. We who bear the ever-mounting burden of the years do not clearly understand this; but if that grief has returned to trouble you, as you say, then we fear that the Shadow arises once more and grows again in your hearts. Therefore, though you be the Dunedain, fairest of Men, who escaped from the Shadow of old and fought valiantly against it, we say to you: Beware! The will of Eru may not be gainsaid; and the Valar bid you earnestly not to withhold the trust to which you are called, lest soon it become again a bond by which you are constrained. Hope rather that in the end even the least of your desires shall have fruit. The love of Arda was set in your hearts by Iluvatar, and he does not plant to no purpose. Nonetheless, many ages of Men unborn may pass ere that purpose is made known; and to you it will be revealed and not to the Valar.'
   These things took place in the days of Tar-Ciryatan the Shipbuilder, and of Tar-Atanamir his son; and they were proud men, eager for wealth, and they laid the men of Middle-earth under tribute, taking now rather than giving. It was to Tar-Atanamir that the Messengers came; and he was the thirteenth King, and in his day the Realm of Numenor had endured for more than two thousand years, and was come to the zenith of its bliss, if not yet of its power. But Atanamir was ill pleased with the counsel of the Messengers and gave little heed to it, and the greater part of his people followed him; for they wished still to escape death in their own day, not waiting upon hope. And Atanamir lived to a great age, clinging to his life beyond the end of all joy; and he was the first of the Numenoreans to do this, refusing to depart until he was witless and unmanned, and denying to his son the kingship at the height of his days. For the Lords of Numenor had been wont to wed late in their long lives and to depart and leave the mastery to their sons when these were come to full stature of body and mind.
   Then Tar-Ancalimon, son of Atanamir, became King, and he was of like mind; and in his day the people of Numenor became divided. On the one hand was the greater party, and they were called the King's Men, and they grew proud and were estranged from the Eldar and the Valar. And on the other hand was the lesser party, and they were called the Elendili, the Elf-friends; for though they remained loyal indeed to the King and the House of Elros, they wished to keep the friendship of the Eldar, and they hearkened to the counsel of the Lords of the West. Nonetheless even they, who named themselves the Faithful, did not wholly escape from the affliction of their people, and they were troubled by the thought of death.
   Thus the bliss of Westernesse became diminished; but still its might and splendour increased. For the kings and their people had not yet abandoned wisdom, and if they loved the Valar no longer at least they still feared them. They did not dare openly to break the Ban or to sail beyond the limits that had been appointed. Eastwards still they steered their tall ships. But the fear of death grew ever darker upon them, and they delayed it by all means that they could; and they began to build great houses for their dead, while their wise men laboured unceasingly to discover if they might the secret of recalling life, or at the least of the prolonging of Men's days. Yet they achieved only the art of preserving incorrupt the dead flesh of Men, and they filled all the land with silent tombs in which the thought of death was enshrined in the darkness. But those that lived turned the more eagerly to pleasure and revelry, desiring ever more goods and more riches; and after the days of Tar-Ancalimon the offering of the first fruits to Eru was neglected, and men went seldom any more to the Hallow upon the heights of Meneltarma in the midst of the land.
   Thus it came to pass in that time that the Numenoreans first made great settlements upon the west shores of the ancient lands; for their own land seemed to them shrunken, and they had no rest or content therein, and they desired now wealth and dominion in Middle-earth, since the West was denied. Great harbours and strong towers they made, and there many of them took up their abode; but they appeared now rather as lords and masters and gatherers of tribute than as helpers and teachers. And the great ships of the Numenoreans were borne east on the winds and returned ever laden, and the power and majesty of their kings were increased; and they drank and they feasted and they clad themselves in silver and gold.
   In all this the Elf-friends had small part They alone came now ever to the north and the land of Gil-galad, keeping their friendship with the Elves and lending them aid against Sauron; and their haven was Pelargir above the mouths of Anduin the Great. But the King's Men sailed far away to the south; and the lordships and strongholds that they made have left many rumours in the legends of Men.
   In this Age, as is elsewhere told, Sauron arose again in Middle-earth, and grew, and turned back to the evil in which he was nurtured by Morgoth, becoming mighty in his service. Already in the days of Tar-Minastir, the eleventh King of Numenor, he had fortified the land of Mordor and had built there the Tower of Barad-dur, and thereafter he strove ever for the dominion of Middle-earth, to become a king over all kings and as a god unto Men. And Sauron hated the Numenoreans, because of the deeds of their fathers and their ancient alliance with the Elves and allegiance to the Valar; nor did he forget the aid that Tar-Minastir had rendered to Gil-galad of old, in that time when the One Ring was forged and there was war between Sauron and the Elves in Eriador. Now he learned that the kings of Numenor had increased in power and splendour, and he hated them the more; and he feared them, lest they should invade his lands and wrest from him the dominion of the East. But for a long time he did not dare to challenge the Lords of the Sea, and he withdrew from the coasts.
   Yet Sauron was ever guileful, and it is said that among those whom he ensnared with the Nine Rings three were great lords of Numenorean race. And when the ulairi arose that were the Ring-wraiths, his servants, and the strength of his terror and mastery over Men had grown exceedingly great, he began to assail the strong places of the Numenoreans upon the shores of the sea.
   In those days the Shadow grew deeper upon Numenor; and the lives of the Kings of the House of Elros waned because of their rebellion, but they hardened their hearts the more against the Valar. And the nineteenth king took the sceptre of his fathers, and he ascended the throne in the name of Adunakhor, Lord of the West, forsaking the Elven-tongues and forbidding their use in his hearing. Yet in the Scroll of Kings the name Herunumen was inscribed in the High-elven speech, because of ancient custom, which the kings feared to break utterly, lest evil befall. Now this title seemed to the Faithful over-proud, being the title of the Valar; and their hearts were sorely tried between their loyalty to the House of Elros and their reverence of the appointed Powers. But worse was yet to come. For Ar-Gimilzor the twenty-second king was the greatest enemy of the Faithful. In his day the White Tree was untended and began to decline; and he forbade utterly the use of the Elven-tongues, and punished those that welcomed the ships of Eressea, that still came secretly to the west-shores of the land.
   Now the Elendili dwelt mostly in the western regions of Numenor; but Ar-Gimilzor commanded all that he could discover to be of this party to remove from the west and dwell in the east of the land; and there they were watched. And the chief dwelling of the Faithful in the later days was thus nigh to the harbour of Romenna; thence many set sail to Middle-earth, seeking the northern coasts where they might speak still with the Eldar in the kingdom of Gil-galad. This was known to the kings, but they hindered it not, so long as the Elendili departed from their land and did not return; for they desired to end all friendship between then: people and the Eldar of Eressea, whom they named the Spies of the Valar, hoping to keep their deeds and their counsels hidden from the Lords of the West. But all that they did was known to Manwe, and the Valar were wroth with the Kings of Numenor, and gave them counsel and protection no more; and the ships of Eressea came never again out of the sunset, and the havens of Andunie were forlorn.
   Highest in honour after the house of the kings were the Lords of Andunie; for they were of the line of Elros, being descended from Silmarien, daughter of Tar-Elendil the fourth king of Numenor. And these lords were loyal to the kings, and revered them; and the Lord of Andunie was ever among the chief councillors of the Sceptre. Yet also from the beginning they bore especial love to the Eldar and reverence for the Valar; and as the Shadow grew they aided the Faithful as they could. But for long they did not declare themselves openly, and sought rather to amend the hearts of the lords of the Sceptre with wiser counsels.
   There was a lady Inzilbeth, renowned for her beauty, and her mother was Lindorie, sister of Earendur, the Lord of Andunie in the days of Ar-Sakalthor father of Ar-Gimilzor. Gimilzor took her to wife, though this was little to her liking, for she was in heart one of the Faithful, being taught by her mother; but the kings and their sons were grown proud and not to be gainsaid in their wishes. No love was there between Ar-Gimilzor and his queen, or between their sons. Inziladun, the elder, was like his mother in mind as in body; but Gimilkhad, the younger, went with his father, unless he were yet prouder and more wilful. To him Ar-Gimilzor would have yielded the sceptre rather than to the elder son, if the laws had allowed.
   But when Inziladun acceded to the sceptre, he took again a title in the Elven-tongue as of old, calling himself Tar-Palantir, for he was far-sighted both in eye and in mind, and even those that hated him feared his words as those of a true-seer. He gave peace for a while to the Faithful; and he went once more at due seasons to the Hallow of Eru upon the Meneltarma, which Ar-Gimilzor had forsaken. The White Tree he tended again with honour; and he prophesied, saying that when the Tree perished, then also would the line of the Kings come to its end. But his repentance was too late to appease the anger of the Valar with the insolence of his fathers, of which the greater part of his people did not repent. And Gimilkhad was strong and ungentle, and he took the leadership of those that had been called the King's Men and opposed the will of his brother as openly as he dared, and yet more in secret. Thus the days of Tar-Palantir became darkened with grief; and he would spend much of his time in the west, and there ascended often the ancient tower of King Minastir upon the hill of Oromet nigh to Andunie, whence he gazed westward in yearning, hoping to see, maybe, some sail upon the sea. But no ship came ever again from the West to Numenor, and Avallone was veiled in cloud.
   Now Gimilkhad died two years before his two hundredth year (which was accounted an early death for one of Elros' line even in its waning), but this brought no peace to the King. For Pharazon son of Gimilkhad had become a man yet more restless and eager for wealth and power than his father. He had fared often abroad, as a leader in the wars that the Numenoreans made then in the coastlands of Middle-earth, seeking to extend their dominion over Men; and thus he had won great renown as a captain both by land and by sea. Therefore when he came back to Numenor, hearing of his father's death, the hearts of the people were turned to him; for he brought with him great wealth, and was for the time free in his giving.
   And it came to pass that Tar-Palantir grew weary of grief and died. He had no son, but a daughter only, whom he named Miriel in the Elven-tongue; and to her now by right and the laws of the Numenoreans came the sceptre. But Pharazon took her to wife against her will, doing evil in this and evil also in that the laws of Numenor did not permit the marriage, even in the royal house, of those more nearly akin than cousins in the second degree. And when they were wedded, he seized the sceptre into his own hand, taking the title of Ar-Pharazon (Tar-Calion in the Elven-tongue); and the name of his queen he changed to Ar-Zimraphel.
   The mightiest and proudest was Ar-Pharazon the Golden of all those that had wielded the Sceptre of the Sea-Kings since the foundation of Numenor; and three and twenty Kings and Queens had ruled the Numenoreans before, and slept now in their deep tombs under the mount of Meneltarma, lying upon beds of gold.
   And sitting upon his carven throne in the city of Armenelos in the glory of his power, he brooded darkly, thinking of war. For he had learned in Middle-earth of the strength of the realm of Sauron, and of his hatred of Westernesse. And now there came to him the masters of ships and captains returning out of the East, and they reported that Sauron was putting forth his might, since Ar-Pharazon had gone back from Middle-earth, and he was pressing down upon the cities by the coasts; and he had taken now the title of King of Men, and declared his purpose to drive the Numenoreans into the sea, and destroy even Numenor, if that might be.
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Great was the anger of Ar-Pharazon at these tidings, and as he pondered long in secret, his heart was filled with the desire of power unbounded and the sole dominion of his will. And he determined without counsel of the Valar, or the aid of any wisdom but his own, that the title of King of Men he would himself claim, and would compel Sauron to become his vassal and his servant; for in his pride he deemed that no king should ever arise so mighty as to vie with the Heir of Earendil. Therefore he began in that time to smithy great hoard of weapons, and many ships of war he built and stored them with his arms; and when all was made ready he himself set sail with his host into the East.
   And men saw his sails coming up out of the sunset, dyed as with scarlet and gleaming with red and gold, and fear fell upon the dwellers by the coasts, and they fled far away. But the fleet came at last to that place that was called Umbar, where was the mighty haven of the Numenoreans that no hand had wrought. Empty and silent were all the lands about when the King of the Sea marched upon Middle-earth. For seven days he journeyed with banner and trumpet, and he came to a hill, and he went up, and he set there his pavilion and his throne; and he sat him down in the midst of the land, and the tents of his host were ranged all about him, blue, golden, and white, as a field of tall flowers. Then he sent forth heralds, and he commanded Sauron to come before him and swear to him fealty.
   And Sauron came. Even from his mighty tower of Barad-dur he came, and made no offer of battle. For he perceived that the power and majesty of the Kings of the Sea surpassed all rumour of them, so that he could not trust even the greatest of his servants to withstand them; and he saw not his time yet to work his will with the Dunedain. And he was crafty, well skilled to gain what he would by subtlety when force might not avail. Therefore he humbled himself before Ar-Pharazon and smoothed his tongue; and men wondered, for all that he said seemed fair and wise.
   But Ar-Pharazon was not yet deceived, and it came into his mind that, for the better keeping of Sauron and of his oaths of fealty, he should be brought to Numenor, there to dwell as a hostage for himself and all his servants in Middle-earth. To this Sauron assented as one constrained, yet in his secret thought he received it gladly, for it chimed indeed with his desire. And Sauron passed over the sea and looked upon the land of Numenor, and on the city of Armenelos in the days of its glory, and he was astounded; but his heart within was filled the more with envy and hate.
   Yet such was the cunning of his mind and mouth, and the strength of his hidden will, that ere three years had passed he had become closest to the secret counsels of the King; for flattery sweet as honey was ever on his tongue, and knowledge he had of many things yet unrevealed to Men. And seeing the favour that he had of their lord all the councillors began to fawn upon him, save one alone, Amandil lord of Andunie. Then slowly a change came over the land, and the hearts of the Elf-friends were sorely troubled, and many fell away out of fear; and although those that remained still called themselves the Faithful, their enemies named them rebels. For now, having the ears of men, Sauron with many arguments gainsaid all that the Valar had taught; and he bade men think that in the world, in the east and even hi the west, there lay yet many seas and many lands for their winning, wherein was wealth uncounted. And still, if they should at the last come to the end of those lands and seas, beyond all lay the Ancient Darkness. 'And out of it the world was made. For Darkness alone is worshipful, and the Lord thereof may yet make other worlds to be gifts to those that serve him, so that the increase of their power shall find no end.'
   And Ar-Pharazon said: 'Who is the Lord of the Darkness?'
   Then behind locked doors Sauron spoke to the King, and he lied, saying: 'It is he whose name is not now spoken; for the Valar have deceived you concerning him, putting forward the name of Eru, a phantom devised in the folly of their hearts, seeking to enchain Men in servitude to themselves. For they are the oracle of this Eru, which speaks only what they will. But he that is their master shall yet prevail, and he will deliver you from this phantom; and his name is Melkor, Lord of All, Giver of Freedom, and he shall make you stronger than they.'
   Then Ar-Pharazon the King turned back to the worship of the Dark, and of Melkor the Lord thereof, at first in secret, but ere long openly and in the face of his people; and they for the most part followed him. Yet there dwelt still a remnant of the Faithful, as has been told, at Romenna and in the country near, and other few there were here and there in the land. The chief among them, to whom they looked for leading and courage in evil days, was Amandil, councillor of the King, and his son Elendil, whose sons were Isildur and Anarion, then young men by the reckoning of Numenor. Amandil and Elendil were great ship-captains; and they were of the line of Elros Tar-Minyatur, though not of the ruling house to whom belonged the crown and the throne in the city of Armenelos. In the days of their youth together Amandil had been dear to Pharazon, and though he was of the Elf-friends he remained in his council until the coming of Sauron. Now he was dismissed, for Sauron hated him above all others in Numenor. But he was so noble, and had been so mighty a captain of the sea, that he was still held in honour by many of the people, and neither the King nor Sauron dared to lay hands on him as yet.
   Therefore Amandil withdrew to Romenna, and all that he trusted still to be faithful he summoned to come thither in secret; for he feared that evil would now grow apace, and all the Elf-friends were in peril. And so it soon came to pass. For the Meneltarma was utterly deserted in those days; and though not even Sauron dared to defile the high place, yet the King would let no man, upon pain of death, ascend to it, not even those of the Faithful who kept Iluvatar in their hearts. And Sauron urged the King to cut down the White Tree, Nimloth the Fair, that grew in his courts, for it was a memorial of the Eldar and of the light of Valinor.
   At the first the King would not assent to this, since be believed that the fortunes of his house were bound up with the Tree, as was forespoken by Tar-Palantir. Thus in his folly he who now hated the Eldar and the Valar vainly clung to the shadow of the old allegiance of Numenor. But when Amandil heard rumour of the evil purpose of Sauron he was grieved to the heart, knowing that in the end Sauron would surely have his will. Then he spoke to Elendil and the sons of Elendil, recalling the tale of the Trees of Valinor; and Isildur said no word, but went out by night and did a deed for which he was afterwards renowned. For he passed alone in disguise to Armenelos and to the courts of the King, which were now forbidden to the Faithful; and he came to the place of the Tree, which was forbidden to all by the orders of Sauron, and the Tree was watched day and night by guards in his service. At that time Nimloth was dark and bore no bloom, for it was late in the autumn, and its winter was nigh; and Isildur passed through the guards and took from the Tree a fruit that hung upon it, and turned to go. But the guard was aroused, and he was assailed, and fought his way out, receiving many wounds; and he escaped, and because he was disguised it was not discovered who had laid hands on the Tree. But Isildur came at last hardly back to Romenna and delivered the fruit to the hands of Amandil, ere his strength failed him. Then the fruit was planted in secret, and it was blessed by Amandil; and a shoot arose from it and sprouted in the spring. But when its first leaf opened then Isildur, who had lain long and come near to death, arose and was troubled no more by his wounds.
   None too soon was this done; for after the assault the King yielded to Sauron and felled the White Tree, and turned then wholly away from the allegiance of his fathers. But Sauron caused to be built upon the hill in the midst of the city of the Numenoreans, Armenelos the Golden, a mighty temple; and it was in the form of a circle at the base, and there the walls were fifty feet in thickness, and the width of the base was five hundred feet across the centre, and the walls rose from the ground five hundred feet, and they were crowned with a mighty dome. And that dome was roofed all with silver, and rose glittering in the sun, so that the light of it could be seen afar off; but soon the light was darkened, and the silver became black. For there was an altar of fire in the midst of the temple, and in the topmost of the dome there was a louver, whence there issued a great smoke. And the first fire upon the altar Sauron kindled with the hewn wood of Nimloth, and it crackled and was consumed; but men marvelled at the reek that went up from it, so that the land lay under a cloud for seven days, until slowly it passed into the west.
   Thereafter the fire and smoke went up without ceasing; for the power of Sauron daily increased, and in that temple, with spilling of blood and torment and great wickedness, men made sacrifice to Melkor that he should release them from Death. And most often from among the Faithful they chose their victims; yet never openly on the charge that they would not worship Melkor, the Giver of Freedom, rather was cause sought against them that they hated the King and were his rebels, or that they plotted against their kin, devising lies and poisons. These charges were for the most part false; yet those were bitter days, and hate brings forth hate.
   But for all this Death did not depart from the land, rather it came sooner and more often, and in many dreadful guises. For whereas aforetime men had grown slowly old, and had laid them down in the end to sleep, when they were weary at last of the world, now madness and sickness assailed them; and yet they were afraid to die and go out into the dark, the realm of the lord that they had taken; and they cursed themselves in their agony. And men took weapons in those days and slew one another for little cause; for they were become quick to anger, and Sauron, or those whom he had bound to himself, went about the land setting man against man, so that the people murmured against the King and the lords, or against any that had aught that they had not; and the men of power took cruel revenge.
   Nonetheless for long it seemed to the Numenoreans that they prospered, and if they were not increased in happiness, yet they grew more strong, and their rich men ever richer. For with the aid and counsel of Sauron they multiplied then: possessions, and they devised engines, and they built ever greater ships. And they sailed now with power and armoury to Middle-earth, and they came no longer as bringers of gifts, nor even as rulers, but as fierce men of war. And they hunted the men of Middle-earth and took their goods and enslaved them, and many they slew cruelly upon their altars. For they built in their fortresses temples and great tombs in those days; and men feared them, and the memory of the kindly kings of the ancient days faded from the world and was darkened by many a tale of dread.
   Thus Ar-Pharazon, King of the Land of the Star, grew to the mightiest tyrant that had yet been in the world since the reign of Morgoth, though in truth Sauron ruled all from behind the throne. But the years passed, and the King felt the shadow of death approach, as his days lengthened; and he was filled with fear and wrath. Now came the hour that Sauron had prepared and long had awaited. And Sauron spoke to the King, saying that his strength was now so great that he might think to have his will in all things, and be subject to no command or ban.
   And he said: 'The Valar have possessed themselves of the land where there is no death; and they lie to you concerning it, hiding it as best they may, because of their avarice, and their fear lest the Kings of Men should wrest from them the deathless realm and rule the world in their stead. And though, doubtless, the gift of life unending is not for all, but only for such as are worthy, being men of might and pride and great lineage, yet against all Justice is it done that this gift, which is his due, should be withheld from the King of Bangs, Ar-Pharazon, mightiest of the sons of Earth, to whom Manwe alone can be compared, if even he. But great kings do not brook denials, and take what is their due.'
   Then Ar-Pharazon, being besotted, and walking under the shadow of death, for his span was drawing towards its end, hearkened to Sauron; and he began to ponder in his heart how he might make war upon the Valar. He was long preparing this design, and he spoke not openly of it, yet it could not be hidden from all. And Amandil, becoming aware of the purposes of the King, was dismayed and filled with a great dread, for he knew that Men could not vanquish the Valar in war, and that ruin must come upon the world, if this war were not stayed. Therefore he called his son, Elendil, and he said to him:
   'The days are dark, and there is no hope for Men, for the Faithful are few. Therefore I am minded to try that counsel which our forefather Earendil took of old, to sail into the West, be there ban or no, and to speak to the Valar, even to Manwe himself, if may be, and beseech his aid ere all is lost.'
   'Would you then betray the King?' said Elendil. 'For you know well the charge that they make against us, that we are traitors and spies, and that until this day it has been false.'
   'If I thought that Manwe needed such a messenger,' said Amandil, I would betray the King. For there is but one loyalty from which no man can be absolved in heart for any cause. But it is for mercy upon Men and their deliverance from Sauron the Deceiver that I would plead, since some at least have remained faithful. And as for the Ban, I will suffer in myself the penalty, lest all my people should become guilty.'
   'But what think you, my father, is like to befall those of your house whom you leave behind, when your deed becomes known?'
   'It must not become known,' said Amandil. 'I will prepare my going in secret, and I will set sail into the east, whither daily the ships depart from our havens; and thereafter, as wind and chance may allow, I will go about, through south or north, back into the west, and seek what I may find. But for you and your folk, my son, I counsel that you should prepare yourselves other ships, and put aboard all such things as your hearts cannot bear to part with; and when the ships are ready, you should lie in the haven of Romenna, and give out among men that you purpose, when you see your time, to follow me into the east. Amandil is no longer so dear to our kinsman upon the throne that he will grieve over much, if we seek to depart, for a season or for good. But let it not be seen that you intend to take many men, or he will be troubled, because of the war that he now plots, for which he will need all the force that he may gather. Seek out the Faithful that are known still to be true, and let them join you in secret, if they are willing to go with you, and share in your design.'
   'And what shall that design be?' said Elendil.
   'To meddle not in the war, and to watch,' answered Amandil. 'Until I return I can say no more. But it is most like that you shall fly from the Land of the Star with no star to guide you; for that land is defiled. Then you shall lose all that you have loved, foretasting death in life, seeking a land of exile elsewhere. But east or west the Valar alone can say.'
   Then Amandil said farewell to all his household, as one that is about to die. 'For,' said he, 'it may well prove that you will see me never again; and that I shall show you no such sign as Earendil showed long ago. But hold you ever in readiness, for the end of the world that we have known is now at hand.'
   It is said that Amandil set sail in a small ship at night, and steered first eastward, and then went about and passed into the west. And he took with him three servants, dear to his heart, and never again were they heard of by word or sign in this world, nor is there any tale or guess of their fate. Men could not a second time be saved by any such embassy, and for the treason of Numenor there was no easy absolving.
   But Elendil did all that his father had bidden, and his ships lay off the east coast of the land; and the Faithful put aboard their wives and their children, and their heirlooms, and great store of goods. Many things there were of beauty and power, such as the Numenoreans had contrived in the days of their wisdom, vessels and jewels, and scrolls of lore written in scarlet and black. And Seven Stones they had, the gift of the Eldar; but in the ship of Isildur was guarded the young tree, the scion of Nimloth the Fair. Thus Elendil held himself in readiness, and did not meddle in the evil deeds of those days; and ever he looked for a sign that did not come. Then he journeyed in secret to the western shores and gazed out over the sea, for sorrow and yearning were upon him, and he greatly loved his father. But naught could he descry save the fleets of Ar-Pharazon gathering in the havens of the west.
   Now aforetime in the isle of Numenor the weather was ever apt to the needs and liking of Men: rain in due season and ever in measure; and sunshine, now warmer, now cooler, and winds from the sea. And when the wind was in the west, it seemed to many that it was filled with a fragrance, fleeting but sweet, heart-stirring, as of flowers that bloom for ever in undying meads and have no names on mortal shores. But all this was now changed; for the sky itself was darkened, and there were storms of rain and hail in those days, and violent winds; and ever and anon a great ship of the Numenoreans would founder and return not to haven, though such a grief had not till then befallen them since the rising of the Star. And out of the west there would come at times a great cloud in the evening, shaped as it were an eagle, with pinions spread to the north and the south; and slowly it would loom up, blotting out the sunset, and then uttermost night would fall upon Numenor. And some of the eagles bore lightning beneath their wings, and thunder echoed between sea and cloud.
   Then men grew afraid. 'Behold the Eagles of the Lords of the West!' they cried. 'The Eagles of Manwe are come upon Numenor!' And they fell upon their faces.
   Then some few would repent for a season, but others hardened their hearts, and they shook their fists at heaven, saying: 'The Lords of the West have plotted against us. They strike first. The next blow shall be ours!' These words the King himself spoke, but they were devised by Sauron.
   Now the lightnings increased and slew men upon the hills, and in the fields, and in the streets of the city; and a fiery bolt smote the dome of the Temple and shore it asunder, and it was wreathed in flame. But the Temple itself was unshaken, and Sauron stood there upon the pinnacle and defied the lightning and was unharmed; and in that hour men called him a god and did all that he would. When therefore the last portent came they heeded it little. For the land shook under them, and a groaning as of thunder underground was mingled with the roaring of the sea, and smoke issued from the peak of the Meneltarma. But all the more did Ar-Pharazon press on with his armament.
   In that time the fleets of the Numenoreans darkened the sea upon the west of the land, and they were like an archipelago of a thousand isles; their masts were as a forest upon the mountains, and their sails like a brooding cloud; and their banners were golden and black. And all things waited upon the word of Ar-Pharazon; and Sauron withdrew into the inmost circle of the Temple, and men brought him victims to be burned.
   Then the Eagles of the Lords of the West came up out of the dayfall, and they were arrayed as for battle, advancing in a line the end of which diminished beyond sight; and as they came their wings spread ever wider, grasping the sky. But the West burned red behind them, and they glowed beneath, as though they were lit with a flame of great anger, so that all Numenor was illumined as with a smouldering fire; and men looked upon the faces of their fellows, and it seemed to them that they were red with wrath.
   Then Ar-Pharazon hardened his heart, and he went aboard his mighty ship, Alcarondas, Castle of the Sea. Many-oared it was and many-masted, golden and sable; and upon it the throne of Ar-Pharazon was set. Then he did on his panoply and his crown, and let raise his standard, and he gave the signal for the raising of the anchors; and in that hour the trumpets of Numenor outrang the thunder.
   Thus the fleets of the Numenoreans moved against the menace of the West; and there was little wind, but they had many oars and many strong slaves to row beneath the lash. The sun went down, and there came a great silence. Darkness fell upon the land, and the sea was still, while the world waited for what should betide. Slowly the fleets passed out of the sight of the watchers in the havens, and their lights faded, and night took them; and in the morning they were gone. For a wind arose in the east and it wafted them away; and they broke the Ban of the Valar, and sailed into forbidden seas, going up with war against the Deathless, to wrest from them everlasting life within the Circles of the World.
   But the fleets of Ar-Pharazon came up out of the deeps of the sea and encompassed Avallone and all the isle of Eressea, and the Eldar mourned, for the light of the setting sun was cut off by the cloud of the Numenoreans. And at last Ar-Pharazon came even to Aman, the Blessed Realm, and the coasts of Valinor; and still all was silent, and doom hung by a thread. For Ar-Pharazon wavered at the end, and almost he turned back. His heart misgave him when he looked upon the soundless shores and saw Taniquetil shining, whiter than snow, colder than death, silent, immutable, terrible as the shadow of the light of Iluvatar. But pride was now his master, and at last he left his ship and strode upon the shore, claiming the land for his own, if none should do battle for it. And a host of the Numenoreans encamped in might about Tuna, whence all the Eldar had fled.
   Then Manwe upon the Mountain called upon Iluvatar, and for that time the Valar laid down their government of Arda. But Iluvatar showed forth his power, and he changed the fashion of the world; and a great chasm opened in the sea between Numenor and the Deathless Lands, and the waters flowed down into it, and the noise and smoke of the cataracts went up to heaven, and the world was shaken. And all the fleets of the Numenoreans were drawn down into the abyss, and they were drowned and swallowed up for ever. But Ar-Pharazon the King and the mortal warriors that had set foot upon the land of Aman were buried under falling hills: there it is said that they lie imprisoned in the Caves of the Forgotten, until the Last Battle and the Day of Doom.
   But the land of Aman and Eressea of the Eldar were taken away and removed beyond the reach of Men for ever. And Andor, the Land of Gift, Numenor of the Kings, Elenna of the Star of Earendil, was utterly destroyed. For it was nigh to the east of the great rift, and its foundations were overturned, and it fell and went down into darkness, and is no more. And there is not now upon Earth any place abiding where the memory of a time without evil is preserved. For Iluvatar cast back the Great Seas west of Middle-earth, and the Empty Lands east of it, and new lands and new seas were made; and the world was diminished, for Valinor and Eressea were taken from it into the realm of hidden things.
   In an hour unlocked for by Men this doom befell, on the nine and thirtieth day since the passing of the fleets. Then suddenly fire burst from the Meneltarma, and there came a mighty wind and a tumult of the earth, and the sky reeled, and the hills slid, and Numenor went down into the sea, with all its children and its wives and its maidens and its ladies proud; and all its gardens and its halls and its towers, its tombs and its riches, and its jewels and its webs and its things painted and carven, and its lore: they vanished for ever. And last of all the mounting wave, green and cold and plumed with foam, climbing over the land, took to its bosom Tar-Miriel the Queen, fairer than silver or ivory or pearls. Too late she strove to ascend the steep ways of the Meneltarma to the holy place; for the waters overtook her, and her cry was lost in the roaring of the wind.
   But whether or no it were that Amandil came indeed to Valinor and Manwe hearkened to his prayer, by grace of the Valar Elendil and his sons and their people were spared from the ruin of that day. For Elendil had remained in Romenna, refusing the summons of the King when he set forth to war; and avoiding the soldiers of Sauron that came to seize him and drag him to the fires of the Temple, he went aboard his ship and stood off from the shore, waiting on the time. There he was protected by the land from the great draught of the sea that drew all towards the abyss, and afterwards he was sheltered from the first fury of the storm. But when the devouring wave rolled over the land and Numenor toppled to its fall, then he would have been overwhelmed and would have deemed it the lesser grief to perish, for no wrench of death could be more bitter than the loss and agony of that day; but the great wind took him, wilder than any wind that Men had known, roaring from the west, and it swept his ships far away; and it rent their sails and snapped their masts, hunting the unhappy men like straws upon the water.
   Nine ships there were: four for Elendil, and for Isildur three, and for Anarion two; and they fled before the black gale out of the twilight of doom into the darkness of the world. And the deeps rose beneath them in towering anger, and waves like unto mountains moving with great caps of writhen snow bore them up amid the wreckage of the clouds, and after many days cast them away upon the shores of Middle-earth. And all the coasts and seaward regions of the western world suffered great change and ruin in that time; for the seas invaded the lands, and shores foundered, and ancient isles were drowned, and new isles were uplifted; and hills crumbled and rivers were turned into strange courses.
   Elendil and his sons after founded kingdoms in Middle-earth; and though their lore and craft was but an echo of that which had been ere Sauron came to Numenor, yet very great it seemed to the wild men of the world. And much is said in other lore of the deeds of the heirs of Elendil in the age that came after, and of their strife with Sauron that not yet was ended.
   For Sauron himself was filled with great fear at the wrath of the Valar, and the doom that Eru laid upon sea and land. It was greater far than aught he had looked for, hoping only for the death of the Numenoreans and the defeat of their proud king. And Sauron, sitting in his black seat in the midst of the Temple, had laughed when he heard the trumpets of Ar-Pharazon sounding for battle; and again he had laughed when he heard the thunder of the storm; and a third time, even as he laughed at his own thought, thinking what he would do now in the world, being rid of the Edain for ever, he was taken in the midst of his mirth, and his seat and his temple fell into the abyss. But Sauron was not of mortal flesh, and though he was robbed now of that shape in which he had wrought so great an evil, so that he could never again appear fair to the eyes of Men, yet his spirit arose out of the deep and passed as a shadow and a black wind over the sea, and came back to Middle-earth and to Mordor that was his home. There he took up again his great Ring in Barad-dur, and dwelt there, dark and silent, until he wrought himself a new guise, an image of malice and hatred made visible; and the Eye of Sauron the Terrible few could endure.
   But these things come not into the tale of the Drowning of Numenor, of which now all is told. And even the name of that land perished, and Men spoke thereafter not of Elenna, nor of Andor the Gift that was taken away, nor of Numenore on the confines of the world; but the exiles on the shores of the sea, if they turned towards the West in the desire of their hearts, spoke of Mar-nu-Falmar that was whelmed in the waves, Akallabeth the Downfallen, Atalante in the Eldarin tongue.
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   Among the Exiles many believed that the summit of the Meneltarma, the Pillar of Heaven, was not drowned for ever, but rose again above the waves, a lonely island lost in the great waters; for it had been a hallowed place, and even in the days of Sauron none had defiled it And some there were of the seed of Earendil that afterwards sought for it, because it was said among loremasters that the far-sighted men of old could see from the Meneltarma a glimmer of the Deathless Land. For even after the ruin the hearts of the Dunedain were still set westwards; and though they knew indeed that the world was changed, they said: 'Avallone is vanished from the Earth and the Land of Aman is taken away, and in the world of this present darkness they cannot be found. Yet once they were, and therefore they still are, in true being and in the whole shape of the world as at first it was devised.'
   For the Dunedain held that even mortal Men, if so blessed, might look upon other times than those of their bodies' life; and they longed ever to escape from the shadows of their exile and to see in some fashion fee light that dies not; for the sorrow of the thought of death had pursued them over the deeps of the sea. Thus it was that great mariners among them would still search the empty seas, hoping to come upon the Isle of Meneltarma, and there to see a vision of things that were. But they found it not. And those that sailed far came only to the new lands, and found them like to the old lands, and subject to death. And those that sailed furthest set but a girdle about the Earth and returned weary at last to the place of their beginning; and they said:
   'All roads are now bent.'
   Thus in after days, what by the voyages of ships, what by lore and star-craft, the kings of Men knew that the world was indeed made round, and yet the Eldar were permitted still to depart and to come to the Ancient West and to Avallone, if they would. Therefore the loremasters of Men said that a Straight Road must still be, for those that were permitted to find it. And they taught that, while the new world fell away, the old road and the path of the memory of the West still went on, as it were a mighty bridge invisible that passed through the air of breath and of flight (which were bent now as the world was bent), and traversed Ilmen which flesh unaided cannot endure, until it came to Tol Eressea, the Lonely Isle, and maybe even beyond, to Valinor, where the Valar still dwell and watch the unfolding of the story of the world. And tales and rumours arose along the shores of the sea concerning mariners and men forlorn upon the water who, by some fate or grace or favour of the Valar, had entered in upon the Straight Way and seen the face of the world sink below them, and so had come to the lamplit quays of Avallone, or verily to the last beaches on the margin of Aman, and there had looked upon the White Mountain, dreadful and beautiful, before they died.
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in which these tales come to their end
   Of old there was Sauron the Maia, whom the Sindar in Beleriand named Gorthaur. In the beginning of Arda Melkor seduced him to his allegiance, and he became the greatest and most trusted of the servants of the Enemy, and the most perilous, for he could assume many forms, and for long if he willed he could still appear noble and beautiful, so as to deceive all but the most wary.
   When Thangorodrim was broken and Morgoth overthrown, Sauron put on his fair hue again and did obeisance to Eonwe the herald of Manwe, and abjured all his evil deeds. And some hold that this was not at first falsely done, but that Sauron in truth repented, if only out of fear, being dismayed by the fall of Morgoth and the great wrath of the Lords of the West. But it was not within the power of Eonwe to pardon those of his own order, and he commanded Sauron to return to Aman and there receive the judgement of Manwe. Then Sauron was ashamed, and he was unwilling to return in humiliation and to receive from the Valar a sentence, it might be, of long servitude in proof of his good faith; for under Morgoth his power had been great. Therefore when Eonwe departed he hid himself in Middle-earth; and he fell back into evil, for the bonds that Morgoth bad laid upon him were very strong.
   In the Great Battle and the tumults of the fall of Thangorodrim there were mighty convulsions in the earth, and Beleriand was broken and laid waste; and northward and westward many lands sank beneath the waters of the Great Sea. In the east, in Ossiriand, the walls of Ered Luin were broken, and a great gap was made in them towards the south, and a gulf of the sea flowed in. Into that gulf the River Lhun fell by a new course, and it was called therefore the Gulf of Lhun. That country had of old been named Lindon by the Noldor, and this name it bore thereafter; and many of the Eldar still dwelt there, lingering, unwilling yet to forsake Beleriand where they had fought and laboured long. Gil-galad son of Fingon was their king, and with him was Elrond Half-elven, son of Earendil the Mariner and brother of Elros first king of Numenor.
   Upon the shores of the Gulf of Lhun the Elves built their havens, and named them Mithlond; and there they held many ships, for the harbourage was good. From the Grey Havens the Eldar ever and anon set sail, fleeing from the darkness of the days of Earth; for by the mercy of the Valar the Firstborn could still follow the Straight Road and return, if they would, to their kindred in Eressea and Valinor beyond the encircling seas.
   Others of the Eldar there were who crossed the mountains of Ered Luin in that age and passed into the inner lands. Many of these were Teleri, survivors of Doriath and Ossiriand; and they established realms among the Silvan Elves in woods and mountains far from the sea, for which nonetheless they ever yearned in their hearts. Only in Eregion, which Men called Hollin, did Elves of Noldorin race establish a lasting realm beyond the Ered Luin. Eregion was nigh to the great mansions of the Dwarves that were named Khazad-dum, but by the Elves Hadhodrond, and afterwards Moria. From Ost-in-Edhil, the city of the Elves, the highroad ran to the west gate of Khazad-dum, for a friendship arose between Dwarves and Elves, such as has never elsewhere been, to the enrichment of both those peoples. In Eregion the craftsmen of the Gwaith-i-Mirdain, the People of the Jewel-smiths, surpassed in cunning all that have ever wrought, save only Feanor himself; and indeed greatest in skill among them was Celebrimbor, son of Curufin, who was estranged from his father and remained in Nargothrond when Celegorm and Curufin were driven forth, as is told in the Quenta Silmarillion.
   Elsewhere in Middle-earth there was peace for many years; yet the lands were for the most part savage and desolate, save only where the people of Beleriand came. Many Elves dwelt there indeed, as they had dwelt through the countless years, wandering free in the wide lands far from the Sea; but they were Avari, to whom the deeds of Beleriand were but a rumour and Valinor only a distant name. And in the south and in the further east Men multiplied; and most of them turned to evil, for Sauron was at work.
   Seeing the desolation of the world, Sauron said in his heart that the Valar, having overthrown Morgoth, had again forgotten Middle-earth; and his pride grew apace. He looked with hatred on the Eldar, and he feared the Men of Numenor who came back at whiles in their ships to the shores of Middle-earth; but for long he dissembled his mind and concealed the dark designs that he shaped in his heart.
   Men he found the easiest to sway of all the peoples of the Earth; but long he sought to persuade the Elves to his service, for he knew that the Firstborn had the greater power; and he went far and wide among them, and his hue was still that of one both fair and wise. Only to Lindon he did not come, for Gil-galad and Elrond doubted him and his fair-seeming, and though they knew not who in truth he was they would not admit him to that land. But elsewhere the Elves received him gladly, and few among them hearkened to the messengers from Lindon bidding them beware; for Sauron took to himself the name of Annatar, the Lord of Gifts, and they had at first much profit from his friendship. And he said to them: "Alas, for the weakness of the great! For a mighty king is Gil-galad, and wise in all lore is Master Elrond, and yet they will not aid me in my labours. Can it be that they do not desire to see other lands become as blissful as their own? But wherefore should Middle-earth remain for ever desolate and dark, whereas the Elves could make it as fair as Eressea, nay even as Valinor? And since you have not returned thither, as you might, I perceive that you love this Middle-earth, as do I. Is it not then our task to labour together for its enrichment, and for the raising of all the Elven-kindreds that wander here untaught to the height of that power and knowledge which those have who are beyond the Sea?'
   It was in Eregion that the counsels of Sauron were most gladly received, for in that land the Noldor desired ever to increase the skill and subtlety of their works. Moreover they were not at peace in their hearts, since they had refused to return into the West, and they desired both to stay in Middle-earth, which indeed they loved, and yet to enjoy the bliss of those that had departed. Therefore they hearkened to Sauron, and they learned of him many things, for his knowledge was great. In those days the smiths of Ost-in-Edhil surpassed all that they had contrived before; and they took thought, and they made Rings of Power. But Sauron guided their labours, and he was aware of all that they did; for his desire was to set a bond upon the Elves and to bring them under his vigilance.
   Now the Elves made many rings; but secretly Sauron made One Ring to rule all the others, and their power was bound up with it, to be subject wholly to it and to last only so long as it too should last. And much of the strength and will of Sauron passed into that One Ring; for the power of the Elven-rings was very great, and that which should govern them must be a thing of surpassing potency; and Sauron forged it in the Mountain of Fire in the Land of Shadow. And while he wore the One Ring he could perceive all the things that were done by means of the lesser rings, and he could see and govern the very thoughts of those that wore them.
   But the Elves were not so lightly to be caught. As soon as Sauron set the One Ring upon his finger they were aware of him; and they knew him, and perceived that he would be master of them, and of an that they wrought. Then in anger and fear they took off their rings. But he, finding that he was betrayed and that the Elves were not deceived, was filled with wrath; and he came against them with open war, demanding that all the rings should be delivered to him, since the Elven-smiths could not have attained to their making without his lore and counsel. But the Elves fled from him; and three of their rings they saved, and bore them away, and hid them.
   Now these were the Three that had last been made, and they possessed the greatest powers. Narya, Nenya, and Vilya, they were named, the Rings of Fire, and of Water, and of Air, set with ruby and adamant and sapphire; and of all the Elven-rings Sauron most desired to possess them, for those who had them in their keeping could ward off the decays of time and postpone the weariness of the world. But Sauron could not discover them, for they were given into the hands of the Wise, who concealed them and never again used them openly while Sauron kept the Ruling Ring. Therefore the Three remained unsullied, for they were forged by Celebrimbor alone, and the hand of Sauron had never touched them; yet they also were subject to the One.
   From that time war never ceased between Sauron and the Elves; and Eregion was laid waste, and Celebrimbor slain, and the doors of Moria were shut. In that time the stronghold and refuge of Imladris, that Men called Rivendell, was founded by Elrond Half-elven; and long it endured. But Sauron gathered into his hands all the remaining Rings of Power; and he dealt them out to the other peoples of Middle-earth, hoping thus to bring under his sway all those that desired secret power beyond the measure of their kind. Seven Rings he gave to the Dwarves; but to Men he gave nine, for Men proved in this matter as in others the readiest to his will. And all those rings that he governed he perverted, the more easily since he had a part in their making, and they were accursed, and they betrayed in the end all those that used them. The Dwarves indeed proved tough and hard to tame; they ill endure the domination of others, and the thoughts of their hearts are hard to fathom, nor can they be turned to shadows. They used their rings only for the getting of wealth; but wrath and an over-mastering greed of gold were kindled in their hearts, of which evil enough after came to the profit of Sauron. It is said that the foundation of each of the Seven Hoards of the Dwarf-kings of old was a golden ring; but all those hoards long ago were plundered and the Dragons devoured them, and of the Seven Rings some were consumed in fire and some Sauron recovered.
   Men proved easier to ensnare. Those who used the Nine Rings became mighty in their day, kings, sorcerers, and warriors of old. They obtained glory and great wealth, yet it turned to their undoing. They had, as it seemed, unending life, yet life became unendurable to them. They could walk, if they would, unseen by all eyes in this world beneath the sun, and they could see things in worlds invisible to mortal men; but too often they beheld only the phantoms and delusions of Sauron. And one by one, sooner or later, according to their native strength and to the good or evil of their wills in the beginning, they fell under the thraldom of the ring that they bore and under the domination of the One, which was Sauron's. And they became for ever invisible save to him that wore the Ruling Ring, and they entered into the realm of shadows. The Nazgul were they, the Ringwraiths, the Enemy's most terrible servants; darkness went with them, and they cried with the voices of death.
   Now Sauron's lust and pride increased, until he knew no bounds, and he determined to make himself master of all things in Middle-earth, and to destroy the Elves, and to compass, if he might, the downfall of Numenor. He brooked no freedom nor any rivalry, and he named himself Lord of the Earth. A mask he still could wear so that if he wished he might deceive the eyes of Men, seeming to them wise and fair. But he ruled rather by force and fear, if they might avail; and those who perceived his shadow spreading over the world called him the Dark Lord and named him the Enemy; and he gathered again under his government all the evil things of the days of Morgoth that remained on earth or beneath it, and the Orcs were at his command and multiplied like flies. Thus the Black Years began, which the Elves call the Days of Flight. In that time many of the Elves of Middle-earth fled to Lindon and thence over the seas never to return; and many were destroyed by Sauron and his servants. But in Lindon Gil-galad still maintained his power, and Sauron dared not as yet to pass the Mountains of Ered Luin nor to assail the Havens; and Gil-galad was aided by the Numenoreans. Elsewhere Sauron reigned, and those who would be free took refuge in the fastnesses of wood and mountain, and ever fear pursued them. In the east and south well nigh all Men were under his dominion, and they grew strong in those days and built many towns and walls of stone, and they were numerous and fierce in war and aimed with iron. To them Sauron was both king and god; and they feared him exceedingly, for he surrounded his abode with fire.
   Yet there came at length a stay in the onslaught of Sauron upon the westlands. For, as is told in tile Akallabeth, he was challenged by the might of Numenor. So great was the power and splendour of the Numenoreans in the noontide of their realm that the servants of Sauron would not withstand them, and hoping to accomplish by cunning what he could not achieve by force, he left Middle-earth for a while and went to Numenor as a hostage of Tar-Calion the King. And there he abode, until at the last by his craft he had corrupted the hearts of most of that people, and set them at war with the Valar, and so compassed their ruin, as he had long desired. But that ruin was more terrible than Sauron had foreseen, for he had forgotten the might of the Lords of the West in their anger. The world was broken, and the land was swallowed up, and the seas rose over it, and Sauron himself went down into the abyss. But his spirit arose and fled back on a dark wind to Middle-earth, seeking a home. There he found that the power of Gil-galad had grown great in the years of his absence, and it was spread now over wide regions of the north and west, and had passed beyond the Misty Mountains and the Great River even to the borders of Greenwood the Great, and was drawing nigh to the strong places where once he had dwelt secure. Then Sauron withdrew to his fortress in the Black Land and meditated war.
   In that time those of the Numenoreans who were saved from destruction fled eastward, as is told in the Akallabeth. The chief of these were Elendil the Tall and his sons, Isildur and Anarion. Kinsmen of the King they were, descendants of Elros, but they had been unwilling to listen to Sauron, and had refused to make war on the Lords of the West. Manning their ships with all who remained faithful they forsook the land of Numenor ere ruin came upon it. They were mighty men and their ships were strong and tall, but the tempests overtook them, and they were borne aloft on hills of water even to the clouds, and they descended upon Middle-earth like birds of the storm.
   Elendil was cast up by the waves in the land of Lindon, and he was befriended by Gil-galad. Thence he passed up the River Lhun, and beyond Ered Luin he established his realm, and his people dwelt in many places in Eriador about the courses of the Lhun and the Baranduin; but his chief city was at Annuminas beside the water of Lake Nenuial. At Fornost upon the North Downs also the Numenoreans dwelt, and in Cardolan, and in the hills of Rhudaur; and towers they raised upon Emyn Beraid and upon Amon Sul; and there remain many barrows and ruined works in those places, but the towers of Emyn Beraid still look towards the sea.
   Isildur and Anarion were borne away southwards, and at the last they brought their ships up the Great River Anduin, that flows out of Rhovanion into the western sea in the Bay of Belfalas; and they established a realm in those lands that were after called Gondor, whereas the Northern Kingdom was named Arnor. Long before in the days of their power the mariners of Numenor had established a haven and strong places about the mouths of Anduin, in despite of Sauron in the Black Land that lay nigh upon the east. In the later days to this haven came only the Faithful of Numenor, and many therefore of the folk of the coastlands in that region were in whole or in part akin to the Elf-friends and the people of Elendil, and they welcomed his sons. The chief city of this southern realm was Osgiliath, through the midst of which the Great River flowed; and the Numenoreans built there a great bridge, upon which there were towers and houses of stone wonderful to behold, and tall ships came up out of the sea to the quays of the city. Other strong places they built also upon either hand: Minas Ithil, the Tower of the Rising Moon, eastward upon a shoulder of the Mountains of Shadow as a threat to Mordor; and to the westward Minas Anor, the Tower of the Setting Sun, at the feet of Mount Mindolluin, as a shield against the wild men of the dales. In Minas Ithil was the house of Isildur, and in Minas Anor the house of Anarion, but they shared the realm between them and their thrones were set side by side in the Great Hall of Osgiliath. These were the chief dwellings of the Numenoreans in Gondor, but other works marvellous and strong they built in the land in the days of their power, at the Argonath, and at Aglarond, and at Erech; and in the circle of Angrenost, which Men called Isengard, they made the Pinnacle of Orthanc of unbreakable stone.
   Many treasures and great heirlooms of virtue and wonder the Exiles had brought from Numenor; and of these the most renowned were the Seven Stones and the White Tree. The White Tree was grown from the fruit of Nimloth the Fair that stood in the courts of the Bang at Armenelos in Numenor, ere Sauron burned it; and Nimloth was in its turn descended from the Tree of Tirion, that was an image of the Eldest of Trees, White Telperion which Yavanna caused to grow in the land of the Valar. The Tree, memorial of the Eldar and of the light of Valinor, was planted in Minas Ithil before the house of Isildur, since he it was that had saved the fruit from destruction; but the Stones were divided.
   Three Elendil took, and his sons each two. Those of Elendil were set in towers upon Emyn Beraid, and upon Amon Sul, and in the city of Annuminas. But those of his sons were at Minas Ithil and Minas Anor, and at Orthanc and in Osgiliath. Now these Stones had this virtue that those who looked therein might perceive in them things far off, whether in place or in time. For the most part they revealed only things near to another kindred Stone, for the Stones each called to each; but those who possessed great strength of will and of mind might learn to direct their gaze whither they would. Thus the Numenoreans were aware of many things that their enemies wished to conceal, and little escaped their vigilance in the days of their might.
   It is said that the towers of Emyn Beraid were not built indeed by the Exiles of Numenor, but were raised by Gil-galad for Elendil, his friend; and the Seeing Stone of Emyn Beraid was set in Elostirion, the tallest of the towers. Thither Elendil would repair, and thence he would gaze out over the sundering seas, when the yearning of exile was upon him; and it is believed that thus he would at whiles see far away even the Tower of Avallone upon Eressea, where the Masterstone abode, and yet abides. These stones were gifts of the Eldar to Amandil, father of Elendil, for the comfort of the Faithful of Numenor in their dark days, when the Elves might come no longer to that land under the shadow of Sauron. They were called the Palantiri, those that watch from afar; but all those that were brought to Middle-earth long ago were lost.
   Thus the Exiles of Numenor established their realms in Arnor and in Gondor; but ere many years had passed it became manifest that their enemy, Sauron, had also returned. He came in secret, as has been told, to his ancient kingdom of Mordor beyond the Ephel Duath, the Mountains of Shadow, and that country marched with Gondor upon the east. There above the valley of Gorgoroth was built his fortress vast and strong, Barad-dur, the Dark Tower; and there was a fiery mountain in that land that the Elves named Orodruin. Indeed for that reason Sauron had set there his dwelling long before, for he used the fire that welled there from the heart of the earth in his sorceries and in his forging; and in the midst of the Land of Mordor he had fashioned the Ruling Ring. There now he brooded in the dark, until he had wrought for himself a new shape; and it was terrible, for his fair semblance had departed for ever when he was cast into the abyss at the drowning of Numenor. He took up again the great Ring and clothed himself in power; and the malice of the Eye of Sauron few even of the great among Elves and Men could endure.
   Now Sauron prepared war against the Eldar and the Men of Westernesse, and the fires of the Mountain were wakened again. Wherefore seeing the smoke of Orodruin from afar, and perceiving that Sauron had returned, the Numenoreans named that mountain anew Amon Amarth, which is Mount Doom. And Sauron gathered to him great strength of his servants out of the east and the south; and among them were not a few of the high race of Numenor. For in the days of the sojourn of Sauron in that land the hearts of well nigh all its people had been turned towards darkness. Therefore many of those who sailed east in that time and made fortresses and dwellings upon the coasts were already bent to his will, and they served him still gladly in Middle-earth. But because of the power of Gil-galad these renegades, lords both mighty and evil, for the most part took up their abodes in the southlands far away; yet two there were, Herumor and Fuinur, who rose to power among the Haradrim, a great and cruel people that dwelt in the wide lands south of Mordor beyond the mouths of Anduin.
   When therefore Sauron saw his time he came with great force against the new realm of Gondor, and he took Minas Ithil, and he destroyed the White Tree of Isildur that grew there. But Isildur escaped, and taking with him a seedling of the Tree he went with his wife and his sons by ship down the River, and they sailed from the mouths of Anduin seeking Elendil. Meanwhile Anarion held Osgiliath against the Enemy, and for that time drove him back to the mountains; but Sauron gathered his strength again, and Anarion knew that unless help should come his kingdom would not long stand.
   Now Elendil and Gil-galad took counsel together, for they perceived that Sauron would grow too strong and would overcome all his enemies one by one, if they did not unite against him. Therefore they made that League which is called the Last Alliance, and they marched east into Middle-earth gathering a great host of Elves and Men; and they halted for a while at Imladris. It is said that the host that was there assembled was fairer and more splendid in arms than any that has since been seen in Middle-earth, and none greater has been mustered since the host of the Valar went against Thangorodrim.
   From Imladris they crossed the Misty Mountains by many passes and marched down the River Anduin, and so came at last upon the host of Sauron on Dagorlad, the Battle Plain, which lies before the gate of the Black Land. All living things were divided in that day, and some of every kind, even of beasts and birds, were found in either host, save the Elves only. They alone were undivided and followed Gil-galad. Of the Dwarves few fought upon either side; but the kindred of Durin of Moria fought against Sauron.
   The host of Gil-galad and Elendil had the victory, for the might of the Elves was still great in those days, and the Numenoreans were strong and tall, and terrible in their wrath. Against Aeglos the spear of Gil-galad none could stand; and the sword of Elendil filled Orcs and Men with fear, for it shone with the light of the sun and of the moon, and it was named Narsil.
   Then Gil-galad and Elendil passed into Mordor and encompassed the stronghold of Sauron; and they laid siege to it for seven years, and suffered grievous loss by fire and by the darts and bolts of the Enemy, and Sauron sent many sorties against them. There in the valley of Gorgoroth Anarion son of Elendil was slain, and many others. But at the last the siege was so strait that Sauron himself came forth; and he wrestled with Gil-galad and Elendil, and they both were slain, and the sword of Elendil broke under him as he fell. But Sauron also was thrown down, and with the hilt-shard of Narsil Isildur cut the Ruling Ring from the hand of Sauron and took it for his own. Then Sauron was for that time vanquished, and he forsook his body, and his spirit fled far away and hid in waste places; and he took no visible shape again for many long years.
   Thus began the Third Age of the World, after the Eldest Days and the Black Years; and there was still hope in that time and the memory of mirth, and for long the White Tree of the Eldar flowered in the courts of the Kings of Men, for the seedling which he had saved Isildur planted in the citadel of Anor in memory of his brother, ere he departed from Gondor. The servants of Sauron were routed and dispersed, yet they were not wholly destroyed; and though many Men turned now from evil and became subject to the heirs of Elendil, yet many more remembered Sauron in their hearts and hated the kingdoms of the West. The Dark Tower was levelled to the ground, yet its foundations remained, and it was not forgotten. The Numenoreans indeed set a guard upon the land of Mordor, but none dared dwell there because of the terror of the memory of Sauron, and because of the Mountain of Fire that stood nigh to Barad-dur; and the valley of Gorgoroth was filled with ash. Many of the Elves and many of the Numenoreans and of Men who were their allies had perished in the Battle and the Siege; and Elendil the Tall and Gil-galad the High King were no more. Never again was such a host assembled, nor was there any such league of Elves and Men; for after Elendil’s day the two kindreds became estranged.
   The Ruling Ring passed out of the knowledge even of the Wise in that age; yet it was not unmade. For Isildur would not surrender it to Elrond and Cirdan who stood by. They counselled him to cast it into the fire of Orodruin nigh at hand, in which it had been forged, so that it should perish, and the power of Sauron be for ever diminished, and he should remain only as a shadow of malice in the wilderness. But Isildur refused this counsel, saying: 'This I will have as were-gild for my father's death, and my brothers. Was it not I that dealt the Enemy his death-blow?' And the Ring that he held seemed to him exceedingly fair to look on; and he would not suffer it to be destroyed. Taking it therefore he returned at first to Minas Anor, and there planted the White Tree in memory of his brother Anarion. But soon he departed, and after he had given counsel to Meneldil, his brother's son, and had committed to him the realm of the south, he bore away the Ring, to be an heirloom of his house, and marched north from Gondor by the way that Elendil had come; and he forsook the South Kingdom, for he purposed to take up his father's realm in Eriador, far from the shadow of the Black Land.
   But Isildur was overwhelmed by a host of Orcs that lay in wait in the Misty Mountains; and they descended upon him at unawares in his camp between the Greenwood and the Great River, nigh to Loeg Ningloron, the Gladden Fields, for he was heedless and set no guard, deeming that all his foes were overthrown. There well nigh all his people were slain, and among them were his three elder sons, Elendur, Aratan, and Ciryon; but his wife and his youngest son, Valandil, he had left in Imladris when he went to the war. Isildur himself escaped by means of the Ring, for when he wore it he was invisible to all eyes; but the Orcs hunted him by scent and slot, until he came to the River and plunged in. There the Ring betrayed him and avenged its maker, for it slipped from his finger as he swam, and it was lost in the water. Then the Orcs saw him as he laboured in the stream, and they shot him with many arrows, and that was his end. Only three of his people came ever back over the mountains after long wandering; and of these one was Ohtar his esquire, to whose keeping he had given the shards of the sword of Elendil.
   Thus Narsil came in due time to the hand of Valandil, Isildur's heir, in Imladris; but the blade was broken and its light was extinguished, and it was not forged anew. And Master Elrond foretold that this would not be done until the Ruling Ring should be found again and Sauron should return; but the hope of Elves and Men was that these things might never come to pass.
   Valandil took up his abode in Annuminas, but his folk were diminished, and of the Numenoreans and of the Men of Eriador there remained now too few to people the land or to maintain all the places that Elendil had built; in Dagorlad, and in Mordor, and upon the Gladden Fields many had fallen. And it came to pass after the days of Earendur, the seventh king that followed Valandil, that the Men of Westernesse, the Dunedain of the North, became divided into petty realms and lordships, and their foes devoured them one by one. Ever they dwindled with the years, until their glory passed, leaving only green mounds in the grass. At length naught was left of them but a strange people wandering secretly in the wild, and other men knew not their homes nor the purpose of their journeys, and save in Imladris, in the house of Elrond, their ancestry was forgotten. Yet the shards of the sword were cherished during many lives of Men by the heirs of Isildur; and their line, from father to son, remained unbroken.
   In the south the realm of Gondor endured, and for a time its splendour grew, until it recalled the wealth and majesty of Numenor ere it fell High towers the people of Gondor built, and strong places, and havens of many ships; and the Winged Crown of the Kings of Men was held in awe by people of many lands and tongues. For many a year the White Tree grew before the King's house in Minas Anor, the seed of that tree which Isildur brought out of the deeps of the sea from Numenor; and the seed before that came from Avallone, and before that from Valinor in the Day before days when the world was young.
   Yet at the last, in the wearing of the swift years of Middle-earth, Gondor waned, and the line of Meneldil son of Anarion failed. For the blood of the Numenoreans became much mingled with that of other men, and their power and wisdom was diminished, and their life-span was shortened, and the watch upon Mordor slumbered. And in the days of Telemnar, the third and twentieth of the line of Meneldil, a plague came upon dark winds out of the east, and it smote the King and his children, and many of the people of Gondor perished. Then the forts on the borders of Mordor were deserted, and Minas Ithil was emptied of its people; and evil entered again into the Black Land secretly, and the ashes of Gorgoroth were stirred as by a cold wind, for dark shapes gathered there. It is said that these were indeed the ulairi, whom Sauron called the Nazgul, the Nine Ringwraiths that had long remained hidden, but returned now to prepare the ways of their Master, for he had begun to grow again.
   And in the days of Earnil they made their first stroke, and they came by night out of Mordor over the passes of the Mountains of Shadow, and took Minas Ithil for their abode; and they made it a place of such dread that none dared to look upon it. Thereafter it was called Minas Morgul, the Tower of Sorcery; and Minas Morgul was ever at war with Minas Anor in the west. Then Osgiliath, which in the waning of the people had long been deserted, became a place of ruins and a city of ghosts. But Minas Anor endured, and it was named anew Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard; for there the kings caused to be built in the citadel a white tower, very tall and fair, and its eye was upon many lands. Proud still and strong was that city, and in it the White Tree still flowered for a while before the house of the Kings; and there the remnant of the Numenoreans still defended the passage of the River against the terrors of Minas Morgul and against all the enemies of the West, Orcs and monsters and evil Men; and thus the lands behind them, west of Anduin, were protected from war and destruction.
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Still Minas Tirith endured after the days of Earnur, son of Earnil, and the last King of Gondor. He it was that rode alone to the gates of Minas Morgul to meet the challenge of the Morgul-lord; and he met him in single combat, but he was betrayed by the Nazgul and taken alive into the city of torment, and no living man saw him ever again. Now Earnur left no heir, but when the line of the Kings failed the Stewards of the house of Mardil the Faithful ruled the city and its ever-shrinking realm; and the Rohirrim, the Horsemen of the North, came and dwelt in the green land of Rohan, which before was named Calenardhon and was a part of the kingdom of Gondor; and the Rohirrim aided the Lords of the City in their wars. And northward, beyond the Falls of Rauros and the Gates of Argonath, there were as yet other defences, powers more ancient of which Men knew little, against whom the things of evil did not dare to move, until in the ripening of time their dark lord, Sauron, should come forth again. And until that time was come, never again after the days of Earnil did the Nazgul dare to cross the River or to come forth from their city in shape visible to Men.
   In all the days of the Third Age, after the fall of Gil-galad, Master Elrond abode in Imladris, and he gathered there many Elves, and other folk of wisdom and power from among all the kindreds of Middle-earth, and he preserved through many lives of Men the memory of all that had been fair; and the house of Elrond was a refuge for the weary and the oppressed, and a treasury of good counsel and wise lore. In that house were harboured the Heirs of Isildur, in childhood and old age, because of the kinship of their blood with Elrond himself, and because he knew in his wisdom that one should come of their line to whom a great part was appointed in the last deeds of that Age. And until that time came the shards of Elendil’s sword were given into the keeping of Elrond, when the days of the Dunedain darkened and they became a wandering people.
   In Eriador Imladris was the chief dwelling of the High Elves; but at the Grey Havens of Lindon there abode also a remnant of the people of Gil-galad the Elvenking. At times they would wander into the lands of Eriador, but for the most part they dwelt near the shores of the sea, building and tending the elven-ships wherein those of the Firstborn who grew weary of the world set sail into the uttermost West Cirdan the Shipwright was lord of the Havens and mighty among the Wise.
   Of the Three Rings that the Elves had preserved unsullied no open word was ever spoken among the Wise, and few even of the Eldar knew where they were bestowed. Yet after the fall of Sauron their power was ever at work, and where they abode there mirth also dwelt and all things were unstained by the griefs of time. Therefore ere the Third Age was ended the Elves perceived that the Ring of Sapphire was with Elrond, in the fair valley of Rivendell, upon whose house the stars of heaven most brightly shone; whereas the Ring of Adamant was in the Land of Lorien where dwelt the Lady Galadriel. A queen she was of the woodland Elves, the wife of Celeborn of Doriath, yet she herself was of the Noldor and remembered the Day before days in Valinor, and she was the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth. But the Red Ring remained hidden until the end, and none save Elrond and Galadriel and Cirdan knew to whom it had been committed.
   Thus it was that in two domains the bliss and beauty of the Elves remained still undiminished while that Age endured: in Imladris; and in Lothlorien, the hidden land between Celebrant and Anduin, where the trees bore flowers of gold and no Orc or evil thing dared ever come. Yet many voices were heard among the Elves foreboding that, if Sauron should come again, then either he would find the Ruling Ring that was lost, or at the best his enemies would discover it and destroy it; but in either chance the powers of the Three must then fail and all things maintained by them must fade, and so the Elves should pass into the twilight and the Dominion of Men begin.
   And so indeed it has since befallen: the One and the Seven and the Nine are destroyed; and the Three have passed away, and with them the Third Age is ended, and the Tales of the Eldar in Middle-earth draw to then-close. Those were the Fading Years, and in them the last flowering of the Elves east of the Sea came to its winter. In that time the Noldor walked still in the Hither Lands, mightiest and fairest of the children of the world, and their tongues were still heard by mortal ears. Many things of beauty and wonder remained on earth in that time, and many things also of evil and dread: Orcs there were and trolls and dragons and fell beasts, and strange creatures old and wise in the woods whose names are forgotten; Dwarves still laboured in the hills and wrought with patient craft works of metal and stone that none now can rival. But the Dominion of Men was preparing and all things were changing, until at last the Dark Lord arose in Mirkwood again.
   Now of old the name of that forest was Greenwood the Great, and its wide halls and aisles were the haunt of many beasts and of birds of bright song; and there was the realm of King Thranduil under the oak and the beech. But after many years, when well nigh a third of that age of the world had passed, a darkness crept slowly through the wood from the southward, and fear walked there in shadowy glades; fell beasts came hunting, and cruel and evil creatures laid there their snares.
   Then the name of the forest was changed and Mirkwood it was called, for the nightshade lay deep there, and few dared to pass through, save only in the north where Thranduil’s people still held the evil at bay. Whence it came few could tell, and it was long ere even the Wise could discover it. It was the Shadow of Sauron and the sign of his return. For coming out of the wastes of the East he took up his abode in the south of the forest, and slowly he grew and took shape there again; in a dark hill he made his dwelling and wrought there his sorcery, and all folk feared the Sorcerer of Dol Guldur, and yet they knew not at first how great was their peril.
   Even as the first shadows were felt in Mirkwood there appeared in the west of Middle-earth the Istari, whom Men called the Wizards. None knew at that time whence they were, save Cirdan of the Havens, and only to Elrond and to Galadriel did he reveal that they came over the Sea. But afterwards it was said among the Elves that they were messengers sent by the Lords of the West to contest the power of Sauron, if he should arise again, and to move Elves and Men and all living things of good will to valiant deeds. In the likeness of Men they appeared, old but vigorous, and they changed little with the years, and aged but slowly, though great cares lay on them; great wisdom they had, and many powers of mind and hand. Long they journeyed far and wide among Elves and Men, and held converse also with beasts and with birds; and the peoples of Middle-earth gave to them many names, for their true names they did not reveal. Chief among them were those whom the Elves called Mithrandir and Curunir, but Men in the North named Gandalf and Saruman. Of these Curunir was the eldest and came first, and after him came Mithrandir and Radagast, and others of the Istari who went into the east of Middle-earth, and do not come into these tales. Radagast was the friend of all beasts and birds; but Curunir went most among Men, and he was subtle in speech and skilled in all the devices of smith-craft. Mithrandir was closest in counsel with Elrond and the Elves. He wandered far in the North and West and made never in any land any lasting abode; but Curunir journeyed into the East, and when he returned he dwelt at Orthanc in the Ring of Isengard, which the Numenoreans made in the days of their power.
   Ever most vigilant was Mithrandir, and he it was that most doubted the darkness in Mirkwood, for though many deemed that it was wrought by the Ringwraiths, he feared that it was indeed the first shadow of Sauron returning; and he went to Dol Guldur, and the Sorcerer fled from him, and there was a watchful peace for a long while. But at length the Shadow returned and its power increased; and in that time was first made the Council of the Wise that is called the White Council, and therein were Elrond and Galadriel and Cirdan, and other lords of the Eldar, and with them were Mithrandir and Curunir. And Curunir (that was Saruman the White) was chosen to be their chief, for he had most studied the devices of Sauron of old. Galadriel indeed had wished that Mithrandir should be the Lead of the Council, and Saruman begrudged them that, for his pride and desire of mastery was grown great; but Mithrandir refused the office, since he would have no ties and no allegiance, save to those who sent him, and he would abide in no place nor be subject to any summons. But Saruman now began to study the lore of the Rings of Power, their making and their history.
   Now the Shadow grew ever greater, and the hearts of Elrond and Mithrandir darkened. Therefore on a time Mithrandir at great peril went again to Dol Guldur and the pits of the Sorcerer, and he discovered the truth of his fears, and escaped. And returning to Elrond he said:
   'True, alas, is our guess. This is not one of the ulairi, as many have long supposed. It is Sauron himself who has taken shape again and now grows apace; and he is gathering again all the Rings to his hand; and he seeks ever for news of the One, and of the Heirs of Isildur, if they live still on earth.’
   And Elrond answered: 'In the hour that Isildur took the Ring and would not surrender it, this doom was wrought, that Sauron should return.’
   'Yet the One was lost,' said Mithrandir, 'and while it still lies hid, we can master the Enemy, if we gather our strength and tarry not too long.'
   Then the White Council was summoned; and Mithrandir urged them to swift deeds, but Curunir spoke against him, and counselled them to wait yet and to watch.
   'For I believe not,’ said he, 'that the One will ever be found again in Middle-earth. Into Anduin it fell, and long ago, I deem, it was rolled to the Sea. There it shall lie until the end, when all this world is broken and the deeps are removed.'
   Therefore naught was done at that time, though Elrond's heart misgave him, and he said to Mithrandir:
   'Nonetheless I forbode that the One will yet be found, and then war will arise again, and in that war this Age will be ended. Indeed in a second darkness it will end, unless some strange chance deliver us that my eyes cannot see.’
   'Many are the strange chances of fee world,’ said Mithrandir, 'and help oft shall come from the hands of the weak when the Wise falter.'
   Thus the Wise were troubled, but none as yet perceived that Curunir had turned to dark thoughts and was already a traitor in heart: for he desired that he and no other should find the Great Ring, so that he might wield it himself and order all the world to his will. Too long he had studied the ways of. Sauron in hope to defeat him, and now he envied him as a rival rather than hated his works. And he deemed that the Ring, which was Sauron's, would seek for its master as he became manifest once more; but if he were driven out again, then it would lie hid. Therefore he was willing to play with peril and let Sauron be for a time, hoping by his craft to forestall both his friends and the Enemy, when the Ring should appear.
   He set a watch upon the Gladden Fields; but soon he discovered that the servants of Dol Guldur were searching all the ways of the River in that region. Then he perceived that Sauron also had learned of the manner of Isildur's end, and he grew afraid and withdrew to Isengard and fortified it; and ever he probed deeper into the lore of the Rings of Power and the art of their forging. But he spoke of none of this to the Council, hoping still that he might be the first to hear news of the Ring. He gathered a great host of spies, and many of these were birds; for Radagast lent him his aid, divining naught of his treachery, and deeming that this was but part of the watch upon the Enemy.
   But ever the shadow in Mirkwood grew deeper, and to Dol Guldur evil things repaired out of all the dark places of the world; and they were united again under one will, and their malice was directed against the Elves and the survivors of Numenor. Therefore at last the Council was again summoned and the lore of the Rings was much debated; but Mithrandir spoke to the Council, saying:
   'It is not needed that the Ring should be found, for while it abides on earth and is not unmade, still the power that it holds will live, and Sauron will grow and have hope. The might of the Elves and the Elf-friends is less now than of old. Soon he will be too strong for you, even without the Great Ring; for he rules the Nine, and of the Seven he has recovered three. We must strike.'
   To this Curunir now assented, desiring that Sauron should be thrust from Dol Guldur, which was nigh to the River, and should have leisure to search there no longer. Therefore, for the last time, he aided the Council, and they put forth their strength; and they assailed Dol Guldur, and drove Sauron from his hold, and Mirkwood for a brief while was made wholesome again.
   But their stroke was too late. For the Dark Lord had foreseen it, and he had long prepared all his movements; and the ulairi, his Nine Servants, had gone before him to make ready for his coming. Therefore his flight was but a feint, and he soon returned, and ere the Wise could prevent him he re-entered his kingdom in Mordor and reared once again the dark towers of Barad-dur. And in that year the White Council met for the last time, and Curunir withdrew to Isengard, and took counsel with none save himself.
   Orcs were mustering, and far to the east and the south the wild peoples were arming. Then in the midst of gathering fear and the rumour of war the foreboding of Elrond was proved true, and the One Ring was indeed found again, by a chance more strange than even Mithrandir had foreseen; and it was hidden from Curunir and from Sauron. For it had been taken from Anduin long ere they sought for it, being found by one of the small fisher-folk that dwelt by the River, ere the Kings failed in Gondor; and by its finder it was brought beyond search into dark hiding under the roots of the mountains. There it dwelt, until even in the year of the assault upon Dol Guldur it was found again, by a wayfarer, fleeing into the depths of the earth from the pursuit of the Orcs, and passed into a far distant country, even to the land of the Periannath, the Little People, the Halflings, who dwelt in the west of Eriador. And ere that day they had been held of small account by Elves and by Men, and neither Sauron nor any of the Wise save Mithrandir had in all their counsels given thought to them.
   Now by fortune and his vigilance Mithrandir first learned of the Ring, ere Sauron had news of it; yet he was dismayed and in doubt. For too great was the evil power of this thing for any of the Wise to wield, unless like Curunir he wished himself to become a tyrant and a dark lord in his turn; but neither could it be concealed from Sauron for ever, nor could it be unmade by the craft of the Elves. Therefore with the help of the Dunedain of the North Mithrandir set a watch upon the land of the Periannath and bided his time. But Sauron had many ears, and soon he heard rumour of the One Ring, which above all things he desired, and he sent forth the Nazgul to take it. Then war was kindled, and in battle with Sauron the Third Age ended even as it had begun.
   But those who saw the things that were done in that time, deeds of valour and wonder, have elsewhere told the tale of the War of the Ring, and how it ended both in victory unlocked for and in sorrow long foreseen. Here let it be said that in those days the Heir of Isildur arose in the North, and he took the shards of the sword of Elendil, and in Imladris they were reforged; and he went then to war, a great captain of Men. He was Aragorn son of Arathorn, the nine and thirtieth heir in the right line from Isildur, and yet more like to Elendil than any before him. Battle there was in Rohan, and Curunir the traitor was thrown down and Isengard broken; and before the City of Gondor a great field was fought, and the Lord of Morgul, Captain of Sauron, there passed into darkness; and the Heir of Isildur led the host of the West to the Black Gates of Mordor.
   In that last battle were Mithrandir, and the sons of Elrond, and the King of Rohan, and lords of Gondor, and the Heir of Isildur with the Dunedain of the North. There at the last they looked upon death and defeat, and all their valour was in vain; for Sauron was too strong. Yet in that hour was put to the proof that which Mithrandir had spoken, and help came from the hands of the weak when the Wise faltered. For, as many songs have since sung, it was the Periannath, the Little People, dwellers in hillsides and meadows, that brought them deliverance.
   For Frodo the Halfling, it is said, at the bidding of Mithrandir took on himself the burden, and alone with his servant he passed through peril and darkness and came at last in Sauron's despite even to Mount Doom; and there into the Fire where it was wrought he cast the Great Ring of Power, and so at last it was unmade and its evil consumed.
   Then Sauron failed, and he was utterly vanquished and passed away like a shadow of malice; and the towers of Barad-dur crumbled in ruin, and at the rumour of their fall many lands trembled. Thus peace came again, and a new Spring opened on earth; and the Heir of Isildur was crowned King of Gondor and Arnor, and the might of the Dunedain was lifted up and their glory renewed. In the courts of Minas Anor the White Tree flowered again, for a seedling was found by Mithrandir in the snows of Mindolluin that rose tall and white above the City of Gondor; and while it still grew there the Elder Days were not wholly forgotten in the hearts of the Kings.
   Now all these things were achieved for the most part by the counsel and vigilance of Mithrandir, and in the last few days he was revealed as a lord of great reverence, and clad in white he rode into battle; but not until the time came for him to depart was it known that he had long guarded the Red Ring of Fire. At the first that Ring had been entrusted to Cirdan, Lord of the Havens; but he had surrendered it to Mithrandir, for he knew whence he came and whither at last he would return.
   'Take now this Ring,’ he said; 'for thy labours and thy cares will be heavy, but in all it will support thee and defend thee from weariness. For this is the Ring of Fire, and herewith, maybe, thou shalt rekindle hearts to the valour of old in a world that grows chill. But as for me, my heart is with the Sea, and I will dwell by the grey shores, guarding the Havens until the last ship sails. Then I shall await thee.’
   White was that ship and long was it a-building, and long it awaited the end of which Cirdan had spoken. But when all these things were done, and the Heir of Isildur had taken up the lordship of Men, and the dominion of the West had passed to him, then it was made plain that the power of the Three Rings also was ended, and to the Firstborn the world grew old and grey. In that time the last of the Noldor set sail from the Havens and left Middle-earth for ever. And latest of all the Keepers of the Three Rings rode to the Sea, and Master Elrond took there the ship that Cirdan had made ready. In the twilight of autumn it sailed out of Mithlond, until the seas of the Bent World fell away beneath it, and the winds of the round sky troubled it no more, and borne upon the high airs above the mists of the world it passed into the Ancient West, and an end was come for the Eldar of story and of song.
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   The following note is intended simply to clarify a few main features in the pronunciation of names in the Elvish languages, and is by no means exhaustive. For full information on the subject see The Lord of the Rings Appendix E.
   C always has the value of k, never of s; thus Celeborn is 'Keleborn' not 'Seleborn'. In a few cases, as Tulkas, Kementari a k has been used in the spelling in this book.
   CH always has the value of ch in Scotch loch or German buch, never that of ch in English church. Examples are Carcharoth. Erchamion.
   DH is always used to represent the sound of a voiced ('soft') th in English, that is the th in then, not the th in thin. Examples are Maedhros, Aredhel, Haudh-en-Arwen.
   G always has the sound of English g in get; thus Region, Eregion are not pronounced like English region, and the first syllable of Ginglith is as in English begin not as in gin.
   Consonants written twice are pronounced long; thus Yavanna has the long n heard in English unnamed, penknife, not the short n in unaimed, penny.
   AI has the sound of English eye; thus the second syllable of Edainis like english dine, not Dane.
   AU has the value of English ow in town; thus the first syllable of Aule is like English owl, and the first syllable of Sauron is like English sour, notsore.
   EI as in Teiglin has the sound of English grey.
   IE should not be pronounced as in English piece, but with both the vowels i and e sounded, and run together; thus Ni-enna, not 'Neena'.
   UI as in Uinen has the sound of English ruin.
   AE as in Aegnor, Nirnaeth, and OE as in Noegyth, Loeg, are combinations of the individual vowels, a–e,o–e, but ae may be pronounced in the same way as ai, and oe as in English toy
   EA and EO are not run together, but constitute two syllables; these combinations are written ea and eo (or, when they begin names, Ea and Eo: Earendil, Eonwe ).
   U in names like Hurin, Turin, Tuna should be pronounced oo; thus 'Toorin ' not 'Tyoorin '.
   ER, IR, UR before a consonant (as in Nerdanel, Cirdan, Gurthang) or at the end of a word (as in Ainur) should not be pronounced as in English fern, fir, fur, but as in English air, eer, oor.
   E at the end of words is always pronounced as a distinct vowel, and in this position is written e. It is likewise always pronounced in the middle of words like Celeborn, Menegroth.
   A circumflex accent in stressed monosyllables in Sindarin denotes the particularly long vowel heard in such words (thus Hin Hurin); but in Adunaic (Numenorean) and Khuzdul (Dwarvish) names the circumflex is simply used to denote long vowels.
   Since the number of names in the book is very large, this index provides, in addition to page-references, a short statement concerning each person and place. These statements are not epitomes of all that is said in the text, and for most of the central figures in the narrative are kept extremely brief; but such an index is inevitably bulky, and I have reduced its size in various ways.
   The chief of these concerns the fact that very often the English translation of an Elvish name is also used as the name independently; thus for example the dwelling of King Thingol is called both Menegroth and 'The Thousand Caves' (and also both together). In most such cases I have combined the Elvish name and its translated meaning under one entry, with the result that the page-references are not restricted to the name that appears as the heading (e.g., those under Echoriath include those to 'Encircling Mountains'). The English renderings are given separate headings, but only with a simple direction to the main entry, and only if they occur independently. Words in inverted commas are translations; many of these occur in the text (as Tol Eressea 'the Lonely Isle'), but I have added a great many others. Information about some names that are not translated is contained in the Appendix.
   With the many titles and formal expressions in English whose Elvish originals are not given, such as 'the Elder King' and 'the Two Kindreds', I have been selective, but the great majority are registered. The references are in intention complete (and sometimes include pages where the subject of the entry occurs but is not actually mentioned by name) except in a very few cases where the name occurs very frequently indeed, as Beleriand, Valar. Here the word passim is used, but selected references are given to important passages; and in the entries for some of the Noldorin princes the many occurrences of the name that relate only to their sons or their houses have been eliminated.
   References to The Lord of the Rings are by title of the volume, book, and chapter.

   Adanedhel 'Elf-Man', name given to Turin in Nargothrond. 258
   Adunakhor 'Lord of the West', name taken by the nineteenth King of Numenor, the first to do so in the Adunaic (Numenorean) tongue; his name in Quenya was Herunumen. 330
   Adurant The sixth and most southerly of the tributaries of Gelion in Ossiriand. The name means 'double stream', referring to its divided course about the island of Tol Galen. 147, 229, 290
   Aeglos 'Snow-point', the spear of Gil-galad. 364
   Aegnor The fourth son of Finarfin, who with his brother Angrod held the northern slopes of Dorthonion; slain in the Dagor Bragollach. The name means 'Fell Fire', 64,94, 141, 180-82
   Aelin-uial 'Meres of Twilight', where Aros flowed into Sirion. 133,145, 203, 267, 285
   Aerandir 'Sea-wanderer', one of the three mariners who accompanied Earendil on his voyages. 307
   Aerin A kinswoman of Hurin in Dor-lomin; taken as wife by Brodda the Easterling; aided Morwen after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 243, 264
   Aftercomers The Younger Children of Iluvatar, Men; translation of Hildor, 92-3, 114
   Agarwaen 'Blood-stained', name given to himself by Turin when he came to Nargothrond. 257
   Aglarond 'The Glittering Cavern' of Helm's Deep in Ered Nimrais (see The Two Towers III 8). 361
   Aglon 'The Narrow Pass', between Dorthonion and the heights to the west of Himring. 147, 161, 183-4
   Ainulindale 'The Music of the Ainur', also called The (Great) Music, The (Great) Song. 3-9, 18, 21, 37-8, 43-4, 50, 74, 121, 251. Also the name of the account of Creation said to have been composed by Rumil of Tirion in the Elder Days. 82
   Ainur 'The Holy Ones' (singular Ainu)', the first beings created by Iluvatar, the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Ea. 3-9, 18, 21, 41, 44, 58, 121, 251, 288
   Akallabeth 'The Downfallen', Adunaic (Numenorean) word equivalent in meaning to Quenya Atalante. 347 Also the title of the account of the Downfall of Numenor. 359,360
   Alcarinque 'The Glorious', name of a star. 48
   Alcarondas The great ship of Ar-Pharazon in which he sailed to Aman. 343
   Aldaron 'Lord of Trees', a Quenya name of the Vala Orome; cf. Tauron. 22
   Aldudenie 'Lament for the Two Trees', made by a Vanyarin Elf named Elemmire. 84
   Almaren The first abode of the Valar in Arda, before the second onslaught of Melkor: an isle in a great lake in the midst of Middle-earth. 30-1, 117
   Alqualonde 'Haven of the Swans', the chief city and haven of the Teleri on the shores of Aman. 63-5, 79, 97, 100, 120, 130, 154, 188, 309, 311
   Aman 'Blessed, free from evil', the name of the land in the West, beyond the Great Sea, in which the Valar dwelt after they had left the Isle of Almaren. Often referred to as the Blessed Realm. Passim; see especially 32, 66, 326
   Amandil 'Lover of Aman'; the last lord of Andunie in Numenor, descendant of Elros and father of Elendil; set out on a voyage to Valinor and did not return. 335-7, 340-1, 346, 362
   Amarie Vanyarin Elf, beloved of Finrod Felagund, who remained in Valinor. 155
   Amlach Son of Imlach son of Marach; a leader of dissension among the Men of Estolad who, repenting, took service with Maedhros. 173-4
   Amon Amarth 'Mount Doom', the name given to Orodruin when its fires awoke again after Sauron's return from Numenor. 363, 377
   Amon Ereb 'The Lonely Hill' (also simply Ereb), between Ramdal and the river Gelion in East Beleriand. 110, 146, 184
   Amon Ethir 'The Hill of Spies', raised by Finrod Felagund to the east of the doors of Nargothrond. 267-8
   Amon Gwareth The hill upon which Gondolin was built, in the midst of the plain of Tumladen. 151, 163, 296, 299
   Amon Obel A hill in the midst of the Forest of Brethil, on which was built Ephel Brandir. 249, 266, 270
   Amon Rudh 'The Bald Hill', a lonely height in the lands south of Brethil; abode of Mim, and lair of Turin's outlaw band. 246-52, 284
   Amon Sul 'Hill of the Wind', in the Kingdom of Arnor ('Weathertop' in The Lord of the Rings). 362
   Amon Uilos Sindarin name of Oiolosse. 32
   Amras Twin-brother of Amrod, youngest of the sons of Feanor; slain with Amrod in the attack on Earendil's people at the Mouths of Sirion. 63, 93, 148, 170, 184, 305
   Amrod See Amras.
   Anach Pass leading down from Taur-nu-Fuin (Dorthonion) at the western end of Ered Gorgoroth. 245-6, 251-2, 299
   Anadune 'Westernesse': name of Numenor in the Adunaic (Numenorean) tongue (seeNumenor ). 322
   Anar Quenya name of the Sun. 114-6
   Anarion Younger son of Elendil, who with his father and his brother Isildur escaped from the Drowning of Numenor and founded in Middle-earth the Numenorean realms in exile; lord of Minas Anor; slain in the siege of Barad-dur. 336, 346, 360-8
   Anarrima Name of a constellation. 48
   Ancalagon Greatest of the winged dragons of Morgoth, destroyed by Earendil. 312
   Andor 'The Land of Gift': Numenor. 321, 345, 347
   Andram 'The Long Wall', name of the dividing fall running across Beleriand. 109, 146
   Androth Caves in the bills of Mithrim where Tuor was fostered by the Grey-elves. 294
   Anduin 'The Long River', east of the Misty Mountains; referred to also as the Great River and the River. 55,107, 329, 360-1, 364, 366, 369, 374-5
   Andunie City and haven on the west coast of Numenor. 322, 331-2, 335. For the Lords of Andunie see 331
   Anfauglir A name of the wolf Carcharoth, translated in the text as 'Jaws of Thirst'. 218
   Anfauglith Name of the plain of Ard-galen after its desolation by Morgoth in the Battle of Sudden Flame; translated in the text as 'the Gasping Dust'. Cf. Dor-nu-Fauglith. 181, 194, 215, 232-4, 241, 254-5, 261, 280, 311
   Angainor The chain wrought by Aule with which Melkor was twice bound. 52, 312
   Angband 'Iron Prison, Hell of Iron', the great dungeon-fortress of Morgoth in the Northwest of Middle-earth. Passim; see especially 47, 90, 109, 139, 217. The Siege of Angband 36, 139-40, 144, 148, 158, 182, 192, 202
   Anghabar 'Iron-delvings', a mine in the Encircling Mountains about the plain of Gondolin. 166
   Anglachel The sword made from meteoric iron that Thingol received from Eol and which he gave to Beleg; after its reforging for Turin named Gurthang. 247, 253-57
   Angrenost 'Iron Fortress', Numenorean fortress on the west borders of Gondor, afterwards inhabited by the wizard Curunir (Saruman); see Isengard. 361
   Angrim Father of Gorlim the Unhappy. 195
   Angrist 'Iron-cleaver', the knife made by Telchar of Nogrod, taken from Curufin by Beren and used by him to cut the Silmaril from Morgoth's crown. 215, 219
   Angrod The third son of Finarfin, who with his brother Aegnor held the northern slopes of Dorthonion; slain in the Dagor Bragollach. 64, 94, 130-1, 141, 154, 180-2, 260
   Anguirel Eol's sword, made of the same metal as Anglachel. 247
   Annael Grey-elf of Mithrim, fosterfather of Tuor. 294
   Annatar 'Lord of Gifts', name given to himself by Sauron in the Second Age, in that time when he appeared in a fair form among the Eldar who remained in Middle-earth. 355
   Annon-in-Gelydh 'Gate of the Noldor', entrance to a subterranean watercourse in the western hills of Dor-lomin, leading to Cirith Ninniach. 294
   Annuminas 'Tower of the West' (i.e. of Westernesse, Numenor); city of the Kings of Arnor beside Lake Nenuial. 360, 362, 367
   Anor See Minas Anor.
   Apanonar 'The Afterborn', an Elvish name for Men. 119
   Aradan Sindarin name of Malach, son of Marach. 172, 177
   Aragorn The thirty-ninth Heir of Isildur in the direct line; King of the reunited realms of Arnor and Gondor after the War of the Ring; wedded Arwen, daughter of Elrond. 377. Called the Heir of Isildur 377
   Araman Barren wasteland on the coast of Aman, between the Pelori and the Sea, extending northward to the Helcaraxe. 79, 88, 97,101, 116-7,123, 129, 297
   Aranel Name of Dior Thingol's Heir. 229
   Aranruth 'King's Ire', the name of Thingol's sword. Aranruth survived the ruin of Doriath and was possessed by the Kings of Numenor. 247
   Aranwe Elf of Gondolin, father of Voronwe. 295
   Aratan Second son of Isildur, slain with him at the Gladden Fields. 366
   Aratar 'The Exalted', the eight Valar of greatest power. 23
   Arathorn Father of Aragorn. 377
   Arda 'The Realm', name of the Earth as the Kingdom of Manwe. Passim; see especially 8, 12
   Ard-galen The great grassy plain north of Dorthonion, called after its desolation Anfauglith and Dor-nu-Fauglith. The name means 'the Green Region'; cf. Calenardhon (Rohan). 124, 135-6, 144, 181
   Aredhel 'Noble Elf', the sister of Turgon of Gondolin, who was ensnared by Eol in Nan Elmoth and bore to him Maeglin; called also Ar-Feiniel, the White Lady of the Noldor, the White Lady of Gondolin. 64, 156-65, 247
   Ar-Feiniel See Aredhel.
   Ar-Gimilzor Twenty-second King of Numenor, persecutor of the Elendili. 331-2
   Argonath 'King-stones', the Pillars of the Kings, great carvings of Isildur and Anarion on the Anduin at the entrance to the northern bounds of Gondor (see The Fellowship of the Ring II 9). 361, 369
   Arien A Maia, chosen by the Valar to guide the vessel of the Sun. 114-7
   Armenelos City of the Kings in Numenor. 322, 324, 333-7, 361
   Arminas See Gelmir (2).
   Arnor 'Land of the King', the northern realm of the Numenoreans in Middle-earth, established by Elendil after his escape from the Drowning of Numenor. 361-2, 377
   Aros The southern river of Doriath. 109, 131, 145, 147-8, 157, 158, 176, 287-9
   Arossiach The Fords of Aros, near the north-eastern edge of Doriath. 145, 158, 162
   Ar-Pharazon 'The Golden', twenty-fourth and last King of Numenor; named in Quenya Tar-Calion; captor of Sauron, by whom he was seduced; commander of the great fleet that went against Aman. 333-47
   Ar-Sakalthor Father of Ar-Gimilzor. 331
   Arthad One of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion. 187
   Arvernien The coastlands of Middle-earth west of Sirion's mouths. Cf. Bilbo's song at Rivendell: 'Earendil was a mariner that tarried in Arvernien…' (The Fellowship of the Ring II 1). 302
   Ar-Zimraphel SeeMiriel (2).
   Ascar The most northerly of the tributaries of Gelion in Ossiriand (afterwards called Rathloriel). The name means 'rushing, impetuous'. 104, 146-8, 167, 174, 291
   Astaldo 'The Valiant', name of the Vala Tulkas. 22
   Atalante 'The Downfallen'. Quenya word equivalent in meaning to Akallabeth, 347
   Atanamir See Tar-Atanamir.
   Atanatari 'Fathers of Men'; see Atani. 120, 232
   Atani 'The Second People', Men (singular Atan). For the origin of the name see 171; since in Beleriand for a long time the only Men known to the Noldor and Sindar were those of the Three Houses of the Elf-friends, this name (in the Sindarin form Adan, plural Edain) became specially associated with them, so that it was seldom applied to other Men who came later to Beleriand, or who were reported to be dwelling beyond the Mountains. But in the speech of Iluvatar (41) the meaning is 'Men (in general)'. 38, 119, 171; Edain, 171-2, 176-9, 189-90, 238, 241, 292, 319-21, 347
   Aule A Vala, one of the Aratar, the smith and master of crafts, spouse of Yavanna; see especially 20, 23, and for his making of the Dwarves 40 ff., 8-9, 18, 20, 23-4, 26, 30, 35, 37, 40-5, 51, 54, 62, 65, 69, 75, 87, 95, 104, 113, 321
   Avallone Haven and city of the Eldar on Tol Eressea, so named, according to the Akallabeth, 'for it is of all cities the nearest to Valinor'. 320, 325, 332, 344, 348-9, 362, 368
   Avari 'The Unwilling, the Refusers', the name given to all those Elves who refused to join the westward march from Cuivienen. See Eldar and Dark Elves. 53, 107, 113,355
   Avathar 'The Shadows', the forsaken land on the coast of Aman south of the Bay of Eldamar, between the Pelori and the Sea, where Melkor met Ungoliant 80-1, 88,116
   Azaghal Lord of the Dwarves of Belegost; wounded Glaurung in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, and was killed by him. 236
   Balan The name of Beor the Old before he took service with Finrod. 170
   Balar The great bay to the south of Beleriand into which the river Sirion flowed. 52, 56, 59, 60, 142. Also the isle in the bay, said to have been the eastern horn of Tol Eressea that broke away, where Cirdan and Gil-galad dwelt after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 59, 105, 144, 192, 239, 302, 304-5
   Balrog 'Demon of Might', Sindarin form (Quenya Valarauko) of the name of the demons of fire that served Morgoth. 26, 46, 90, 125, 144, 182, 202, 235, 300-1
   Barad-dur 'The Dark Tower' of Sauron in Mordor. 329, 334, 347, 363, 365, 375, 377
   Barad Eithel 'Tower of the Well', the fortress of the Noldor at Eithel Sirion. 233
   Barad Nimras 'White Horn Tower', raised by Finrod Felagund on the cape west of Eglarest, 142, 239
   Baragund Father of Morwen the wife of Hurin; nephew of Barahir and one of his twelve companions on Dorthonion. 177, 187, 194, 242, 311
   Barahir Father of Beren; rescued Finrod Felagund in the Dagor Bragollach, and received from him his ring; slain on Dorthonion. For the later history of the ring of Barahir, which became an heirloom of the House of Isildur, see The Lord of the Rings Appendix A (I, iii). 121, 177, 182-3, 186-7, 194-7, 201-5, 226, 229, 243. 285, 311
   Baran Elder son of Beor the Old. 170-1
   Baranduin 'The Brown River' in Eriador, flowing into the Sea south of the Blue Mountains; the Brandywine of the Shire in The Lord of the Rings. 360
   Bar-en-Danwedh 'House of Ransom', the name that Mim the Dwarf gave to his dwelling on Amon Rudh when he yielded it to Turin. 248, 252
   Battles of Beleriand The first battle: 96. The second battle (the Battle-under-Stars): see Dagor-nuin-Giliath. The third battle (the Glorious Battle): see Dagor Aglareb. The fourth battle (the Battle of Sudden Flame): see Dagor Bragollach. The fifth battle (Unnumbered Tears): see Nirnaeth Arnoediad. The Great Battle: 311-2
   Bauglir A name of Morgoth: 'the Constrainer'. 120, 243, 259, 286, 315
   Beleg A great archer and chief of the marchwardens of Doriath; called Cuthalion 'Strongbow'; friend and companion of Turin, by whom he was slain. 190, 225-6, 230, 243-8, 251-7, 278
   Belegaer 'The Great Sea' of the West, between Middle-earth and Aman. Named Belegaer 32, 100, 295; but very frequently called the (Great) Sea, also the Western Sea and the Great Water.
   Belegost 'Great Fortress', one of the two cities of the Dwarves in the Blue Mountains; translation into Sindarin of Dwarvish Gabilgathol. See Mickleburg. 104, 107, 132, 158, 231, 236, 250, 285, 288
   Belegund Father of Rian the wife of Huor; nephew of Barahir and one of his twelve companions on Dorthonion. 177, 187, 194, 242
   Beleriand The name was said to have signified 'the country of Balar', and to have been given at first to the lands about the mouths of Sirion that faced the Isle of Balar. Later the name spread to include all the ancient coast of the Northwest of Middle-earth south of the Firth of Drengist, and all the inner lands south of Hithlum and eastwards to the feet of the Blue Mountains, divided by the river Sirion into East and West Beleriand. Beleriand was broken in the turmoils at the end of the First Age, and invaded by the sea, so that only Ossiriand (Lindon) remained. Passim; see especially 142-8, 313, 354-5
   Belfalas Region on the southern coast of Gondor looking on to the great bay of the same name; Bay of Belfalas 361
   Belthil 'Divine radiance', the image of Telperion made by Turgon in Gondolin. 151
   Belthronding The bow of Beleg Cuthalion, which was buried with him. 256
   Beor Called the Old; leader of the first Men to enter Beleriand; vassal of Finrod Felagund; progenitor of the House of Beor (called also the Eldest House of Men and the First House of the Edain ); see Balan. 167-72, 177-80, 204. House of, People of, Beor 172-4, 177, 183, 189-90, 194
   Bereg Grandson of Baran son of Beor the Old (this is not stated in the text); a leader of dissension among the Men of Estolad; went back over the mountains into Eriador. 173-4
   Beren Son of Barahir; cut a Silmaril from Morgoth's crown to be the bride-price of Luthien Thingol's daughter, and was slain by Carcharoth the wolf of Angband; but returning from the dead, alone of mortal Men, lived afterwards with Luthien on Tol Galen in Ossiriand, and fought with the Dwarves at Sarn Athrad. Great-grandfather of Elrond and Elros and ancestor of the Numenorean Kings. Called also Camlost, Erchamion, and One-hand. 121, 147, 177, 187, 194-206, 208-30, 242, 258, 285, 290-1, 305
   Black Land See Mordor.
   Black Sword See Mormegil.
   Black Years See 359, 365
   Blessed Realm See Aman.
   Blue Mountains See Ered Luin and Ered Lindon.
   Bor A chieftain of the Easterlings, follower with his three sons of Maedhros and Maglor. 189, 231. Sons of Bor 235
   Borlach One of the three sons of Bor; slain with his brothers in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 189
   Borlad One of the three sons of Bor; see Borlach.
   Boromir Great-grandson of Beor the Old, grandfather of Barahir father of Beren; first lord of Ladros. 177
   Boron Father of Boromir. 177
   Borthand One of the three sons of Bor; see Borlach.
   Bragollach See Dagor Bragollach.
   Brandir Called the Lame; ruler of the People of Haleth after the death of Handir his father; enamoured of Nienor; slain by Turin. 266, 271-7
   Bregolas Father of Baragund and Belegund; slain in the Dagor Bragollach. 177,182, 187
   Bregor Father of Barahir and Bregolas. 177
   Brethil The forest between the rivers Teiglin and Sirion, dwelling-place of the Haladin (the People of Haleth). 142, 176, 187, 190-2, 214, 231, 234, 238, 246, 249, 251, 260, 266, 269-72, 277-8, 282-3
   Bridge of Esgalduin See Iant Iaur.
   Brilthor 'Glittering Torrent', the fourth of the tributaries of Gelion in Ossiriand. 147
   Brithiach The ford over Sirion north of the Forest of Brethil. 157, 163, 176, 190, 253, 281, 282
   Brithombar The northern of the Havens of the Falas on the coast of Beleriand. 60, 125, 142, 239, 304
   Brithon The river that flowed into the Great Sea at Brithombar. 239
   Brodda An Easterling in Hithlum after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad who took as wife Aerin, kinswoman of Hurin; slain by Turin. 243, 264
   Cabed-en-Aras Deep gorge in the river Teiglin, where Turin slew Glaurung, and where Nienor leapt to her death; see Cabed Naeramarth. 272, 275, 278
   Cabed Naeramarth 'Leap of Dreadful Doom', name given to Cabed-en-Aras after Nienor leapt from its cliffs. 276, 282
   Calacirya 'Cleft of Light', the pass made in the mountains of the Pelori, in which was raised the green hill of Tuna. 62, 65, 79, 101, 117-8, 307
   Calaquendi 'Elves of the Light', those Elves who lived or had lived in Aman (the High Elves). See Moriquendi and Dark Elves, 54, 58, 121, 125
   Calenardhon 'The Green Province', name of Rohan when it was the northern part of Gondor; cf. Ard-galen. 369
   Camlost 'Empty-handed', name taken by Beren after his return to King Thingol without the Silmaril. 221, 226
   Caragdur The precipice on the north side of Amon Gwareth (the hill of Gondolin) from which Eol was cast to his death. 165
   Caranthir The fourth son of Feanor, called the Dark; 'the harshest of the brothers and the most quick to anger'; ruled in Thargelion; slain in the assault on Doriath. 63, 93, 131-2, 148, 154, 158, 171, 184, 189, 292
   Carcharoth The great wolf of Angband that bit off the hand of Beren bearing the Silmaril; slain by Huan in Doriath. The name is translated in the text as 'the Red Maw'. Called also Anfauglir. 218-20, 223-6
   Cardolan Region in the south of Eriador, a part of the Kingdom of Arnor. 360
   Carnil Name of a (red) star. 48
   Celeborn (1) 'Tree of Silver', name of the Tree of Tol Eressea, a scion of Galathilion. 62, 324
   Celeborn (2) Elf of Doriath, kinsman of Thingol; wedded Galadriel and with her remained in Middle-earth after the end of the First Age. 134-5, 290, 315, 370
   Celebrant 'Silver Lode', river running from Mirrormere through Lothlorien to join the Anduin. 370
   Celebrimbor 'Hand of Silver', son of Curufin, who remained in Nargothrond when his father was expelled. In the Second Age greatest of the smiths of Eregion; maker of the Three Rings of the Elves; slain by Sauron. 214, 355, 357
   Celebrindal 'Silverfoof'; see Idril.
   Celebros 'Silver Foam' or 'Silver Rain', a stream in Brethil falling down to Teiglin near the Crossings. 270
   Celegorm The third son of Feanor, called the Fair; until the Dagor Bragollach lord of the region of Himlad with Curufin his brother; dwelt in Nargothrond and imprisoned Luthien; master of Huan the wolfhound; slain by Dior in Menegroth. 63, 65-6, 93, 124, 147, 157-8, 161, 183, 204-6, 208-9, 213-5, 223, 230, 292, 355
   Celon River flowing southwest from the Hill of Himring, a tributary of Aros. The name means 'stream flowing down from heights'. 109, 148, 158, 161, 170, 176, 188
   Children of Iluvatar Also Children of Eru: translations of Hini Iluvataro, Eruhini; the Firstborn and the Followers, Elves and Men. Also The Children, Children of the Earth, Children of the World. Passim; see especially 7-8, 37-8
   Cirdan 'The Shipwright'; Telerin Elf, lord of the Falas (coasts of West Beleriand); at the destruction of the Havens after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad escaped with Gil-galad to the Isle of Balar; during the Second and Third Ages keeper of the Grey Havens in the Gulf of Lhun; at the coming of Mithrandir entrusted to him Narya, the Ring of Fire. 60, 103-4, 110, 124, 133, 142, 153, 194, 239-40, 260, 302, 304-5, 315, 366, 370-3, 378
   Cirith Ninniach 'Rainbow Cleft', by which Tuor came to the Western Sea; see Annon-in-Gelydh. 294
   Cirith Thoronath 'Eagles' Cleft', a high pass in the mountains north of Gondolin, where Glorfindel fought with a Balrog and fell into the abyss. 301
   Cirth The Runes, first devised by Daeron of Doriath. 108
   Ciryon Third son of Isildur, slain with him at the Gladden Fields. 366
   Corollaire 'The Green Mound' of the Two Trees in Valinor; also called Ezellohar. 33
   Crissaegrim The mountain-peaks south of Gondolin, where were the eyries of Thorondor. 144, 186, 191, 221, 246, 281
   Crossings of Teiglin In the southwest of the Forest of Brethil, where the old road southward from the Pass of Sirion crossed the Teiglin. 176, 252, 267, 269, 275, 277, 282
   Cuivienen 'Water of Awakening', the lake in Middle-earth where the first Elves awoke, and where they were found by Orome. 48, 50-4, 57, 92, 114, 288
   Culurien A name of Laurelin. 33
   Curufin The fifth son of Feanor, called the Crafty; father of Celebrimbor. For the origin of his name see Feanor; and for his history see Celegorm. 63, 93, 147, 157, 161-2, 183, 204-5, 208-9, 213-5, 222-3, 230,292, 355
   Curufinwe See Feanor. 67, 75
   Curunir 'The one of cunning devices'. Elvish name of Saruman, one of the Istari (Wizards). 372-7
   Cuthalion 'Strongbow'; see Beleg.
   Daeron Minstrel and chief loremaster of King Thingol; deviser of the Cirth (Runes); enamoured of Luthien and twice betrayed her. 108, 133, 200, 208, 222, 314
   Dagnir One of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion. 187
   Dagnir Glaurunga 'Glaurung's Bane', Turin. 177, 278
   Dagor Aglareb 'The Glorious Battle', third of the great battles in the Wars of Beleriand. 135-6, 139, 149
   Dagor Bragollach 'The Battle of Sudden Flame' (also simply the Bragollach ), fourth of the great battles in the Wars of Beleriand. 181, 187, 190, 193, 230, 233, 239, 260
   Dagorlad 'Battle Plain', the place of the great battle north of Mordor between Sauron and the Last Alliance of Elves and Men at the end of the Second Age. 364, 367
   Dagor-nuin-Giliath 'The Battle-under-Stars', the second battle in the Wars of Beleriand, fought in Mithrim after the coming of Feanor to Middle-earth. 124
   Dairuin One of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion. 187
   Dark Elves In the language of Aman all Elves that did not cross the Great Sea were Dark Elves (Moriquendi ), and the term is sometimes used thus, 121, 131; when Caranthir called Thingol a Dark Elf it was intended opprobriously, and was especially so, since Thingol had been to Aman 'and was not accounted among the Moriquendi' (56). But in the period of the Exile of the Noldor it was often used of the Elves of Middle-earth other than the Noldor and the Sindar, and is then virtually equivalent to Avari (120, 146, 168). Different again is the title Dark Elf of the Sindarin Elf Eol, 158, 162, 247; but at 164 Turgon no doubt meant that Eol was of the Moriquendi.
   Dark Lord, The The term is used of Morgoth, 280, and of Sauron, 359, 371, 375
   Day of Flight See 359
   Deathless Lands See Undying Lands.
   Delduwath One of the later names of Dorthonion (Taur-nu-Fuin), meaning 'Horror of Night-shadow'. 186
   Denethor Son of Lenwe; leader of the Nandorin Elves that came at last over the Blue Mountains and dwelt in Ossiriand; slain on Amon Ereb in the First Battle of Beleriand. 56, 108-9,146
   Dimbar The land between the rivers Sirion and Mindeb. 144, 157, 191, 214, 246-7, 251-3, 281
   Dimrost The falls of Celebros in the Forest of Brethil; translated in the text as 'the Rainy Stair'. Afterwards called Nen Girith. 270
   Dior Called Aranel, and also Eluchil 'Thingol's Heir'; son of Beren and Luthien and father of Elwing, Elrond's mother; came to Doriath from Ossiriand after the death of Thingol, and received the Silmaril after the death of Beren and Luthien; slain in Menegroth by the sons of Feanor. 229, 290-3, 297, 302, 305, 310, 314
   Dispossessed, The The House of Feanor. 99, 130
   Del Guldur 'Hill of Sorcery', fastness of the Necromancer (Sauron) in southern Mirkwood in the Third Age. 372-5
   Dolmed 'Wet Head' a great mountain in the Ered Luin, near the Dwarf-cities of Nogrod and Belegost 104, 110, 236, 290
   Dor Caranthir 'Land of Caranthir'; see Thargelion. 148, 174, 184
   Dor-Cuarthol 'Land of Bow and Helm', name of the country defended by Beleg and Turin from their lair on Amon Rudh. 252
   Dor Daedeloth 'Land of the Shadow of Horror', the land of Morgoth in the north. 124, 127, 130
   Dor Dinen 'The Silent Land', where nothing dwelt, between the upper waters of Esgalduin and Aros. 145
   Dor Firn-i-Guinar 'Land of the Dead that Live', name of that region in Ossiriand where Beren and Luthien dwelt after their return. 229, 291
   Doriath 'Land of the Pence' (Dor Iath ), referring to the Girdle of Melian, earlier called Eglador; the kingdom of Thingol and Melian in the forests of Neldoreth and Region, ruled from Menegroth on the river Esgalduin. Also called the Hidden Kingdom. Passim; see especially 111, 144-5
   Dorlas A Man of the Haladin in Brethil; went with Turin and Hunthor to the attack on Glaurung, but withdrew in fear; slain by Brandir the Lame. 266, 271-2, 276. The wife of Dorlas, not named, 276.
   Dor-lomin Region in the south of Hithlum, the territory of Fingon, given as a fief to the House of Hador; the home of Hurin and Morwen. 101, 140-2, 177, 187, 191-3, 232, 237, 242-4, 251, 257, 260, 263-7, 276-7, 282, 284, 286, 294. The Lady of Dor-lomin: Morwen. 242
   Dor-nu-Fauglith 'Land under Choking Ash'; see Anfauglith. 184, 221
   Dorthonion 'Land of Pines', the great forested highlands on the northern borders of Beleriand, afterwards called Taur-nu-Fuin. Cf. Tree-beard's song in The Two Towers III 4: 'To the pine-trees upon the highland of Dorthonion I climbed in the Winter…' 52, 109, 124, 130, 135-7, 141-4, 146-8, 172, 177, 181-4, 186, 194-7, 231
   Dragon-helm of Dor-lomin Heirloom of the House of Hador, worn by Turin; also called the Helm of Hador. 114, 251, 260, 284
   Dragons 235, 300, 312, 320, 358, 371
   Draugluin The great werewolf slain by Huan at Tol-in-Gaurhoth, and in whose form Beren entered Angband. 211, 216-18
   Drengist The long firth that pierced Ered Lomin, the west-fence of Hithlum. 56, 89, 101, 111, 115, 136, 140, 194
   Dry River The river that once flowed out under the Encircling Mountains from the primeval lake where was afterwards Tumladen, the plain of Gondolin. 163, 281
   Duilwen The fifth of the tributaries of Gelion in Ossiriand. 147
   Dunedain 'The Edain of the West'; see Numenoreans.
   Dungartheb See Nan Dungortheb.
   Durin Lord of the Dwarves of Khazad-dum (Moria), 42, 364
   Dwarf-road Road leading down into Beleriand from the cities of Nogrod and Belegost, and crossing Gelion at the ford of Sarn Athrad. 167, 171, 174
   Dwarrowdelf 'Delving of the Dwarves': translation of Khazad-dum (Hadhodrond ). 104
   Dwarves 40-2, 103-7, 132-4, 148, 158-61, 167, 189, 231, 236, 250, 258, 287-91, 354, 357-8, 364, 371. Referring to the Petty-Dwarves: 248-53, 261, 284. Seven Fathers of the Dwarves: 40-2, 104. For the Necklace of the Dwarves see Nauglamir. For the Seven Rings of the Dwarves see Rings of Power. See also Naugrim.
   Ea The World, the material Universe; Ea, meaning in Elvish 'It is' or 'Let it be', was the word of Iluvatar when the World began its existence. 10, 17-8, 23, 30, 34, 40, 48-9, 58, 78, 82, 86, 95, 99, 112
   Eagles 44-5, 129, 144, 149, 221, 281, 299, 343
   Earendil Called 'Halfelven', 'the Blessed', 'the Bright', and 'the Mariner'; son of Tuor and Idril Turgon's daughter; escaped from the sack of Gondolin and wedded Elwing daughter of Dior at the Mouths of Sirion; sailed with her to Aman and pleaded for help against Morgoth; set to sail the skies in his ship Vingilot bearing the Silmaril that Beren and Luthien brought out of Angband. The name means 'Lover of the Sea'. 122, 177, 298-300, 302, 304-9, 312, 315, 319-22, 325, 334, 341, 345, 348, 354. Lay of Earendil 304, 319
   Earendur (1) A lord of Andunie in Numenor. 331
   Earendur (2) Tenth King of Arnor. 367
   Earnil Thirty-second King of Gondor. 369
   Earnur Son of Earnil; last King of Gondor, in whom the line of Anarion came to its end. 369
   Earrame 'Sea-wing', the name of Tuor's ship. 303
   Earwen Daughter of Olwe of Alqualonde, Thingol's brother; wedded Finarfin of the Noldor. From Earwen Finrod, Orodreth, Angrod, Aegnor and Galadriel had Telerin blood and were therefore allowed entry into Doriath. 63, 130, 154
   Easterlings Also called Swarthy Men; entered Beleriand from the East in the time after the Dagor Bragollach, and fought on both sides in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad; given Hithlum as a dwelling-place by Morgoth, where they oppressed the remnant of the People of Hador. 189, 235, 239, 242, 264, 265, 280, 294
   Echoing Mountains See Ered Lomin.
   Echoriath 'The Encircling Mountains' about the plain of Gondolin. 135, 166, 191, 281, 297-8
   Echtelion Elf-lord of Gondolin, who in the sack of the city slew and was slain by Gothmog Lord of Balrogs. 125, 237, 296, 300
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Edain See Atani.
   Edrahil Chief of the Elves of Nargothrond who accompanied Finrod and Beren on their quest, and died in the dungeons of Tol-in-Gaurhoth. 206
   Eglador The former name of Doriath, before it was encompassed by the Girdle of Melian; probably connected with the name Eglath. 111
   Eglarest The southern of the Havens of the Falas on the coast of Beleriand. 60, 109, 125, 142, 145, 239, 304
   Eglath 'The Forsaken People', name given to themselves by the Telerin Elves who remained in Beleriand seeking for Elwe (Thingol) when the main host of the Teleri departed to Aman. 60, 288
   Eilinel The wife of Gorlim the Unhappy. 165-6
   Eithel Ivrin ' Ivrin's Well', the source of the river Narog beneath Ered Wethrin. 256, 261
   Eithel Sirion 'Sirion's Well', in the eastern face of Ered Wethrin, where was the great fortress of Fingolfin and Fingon (see Barad Eithel). 124, 140-1, 183, 193, 232-3
   Ekkaia Elvish name of the Outer Sea, encircling Arda; referred to also as the Outer Ocean and the Encircling Sea. 32,40, 51, 65, 115-6, 121, 227
   Elbereth The usual name of Varda in Sindarin, 'Star-Queen'; cf. Elentari. 19, 36
   Eldalie 'The Elven-folk', used as equivalent to Eldar. 12, 54, 59, 71,150, 200, 222, 227-8, 232, 247, 315
   Eldamar 'Elvenhome', the region of Aman in which the Elves dwelt; also the great Bay of the same name. 61, 65, 67, 75-6, 79-80, 97, 160, 213, 306
   Eldar According to Elvish legend the name Eldar 'People of the Stars' was given to all the Elves by the Vala Orome (49). It came however to be used to refer only to the Elves of the Three Kindreds (Vanyar, Noldor, and Teleri) who set out on the great westward march from Cuivienen (whether or not they remained in Middle-earth), and to exclude the Avari. The Elves of Aman, and all Elves who ever dwelt in Aman, were called the High Elves (Tareldar ) and Elves of the Light (Calaquendi ); see Dark Elves, umanyar. Passim; see entry Elves.
   Eldarin Of the Eldar; used in reference to the language(s) of the Eldar. The occurrences of the term in fact refer to Quenya, also called High Eldarin and High-elven; see Quenya.
   Elder Days The First Age; also called the Eldest Days. 24, 33, 119, 134, 256, 258, 285, 289, 299, 365, 377-8
   Elder King Manwe. 309, 312
   Eledhwen See Morwen.
   Elemmire (1) Name of a star. 48
   Elemmire (2) Vanyarin Elf, maker of the Aldudenie, the Lament for the Two Trees. 84
   Elende A name of Eldamar. 65, 96, 130
   Elendil Called the Tall; son of Amandil, last lord of Andunie in Numenor, descended from Earendil and Elwing but not of the direct line of the Kings; escaped with his sons Isildur and Anarion from the Drowning of Numenor and founded the Numenorean realms in Middle-earth; slain with Gil-galad in the overthrow of Sauron at the end of the Second Age. The name may be interpreted either as 'Elf-friend' (cf. Elendili) or as 'Star-lover'. 337, 340-2, 360-7, 370, 377. Heirs of Elendil 365
   Elendili 'Elf-friends', name given to those Numenoreans who were not estranged from the Eldar in the days of Tar-Ancalimon and later kings; also called the Faithful. 328-32, 335-7, 340-1, 361-2
   Elendur Eldest son of Isildur, slain with him at the Gladden Fields. 366
   Elenna A (Quenya) name of Numenor, 'Starwards', from the guidance of the Edain by Earendil on their voyage to Numenor at the beginning of the Second Age. 321, 345, 347
   Elentari 'Star-Queen', a name of Varda as maker of the Stars. She is called thus in Galadriel's lament in Lorien, The Fellowship of the Ring II 8. Cf. Elbereth, Tintalle. 48
   Elenwe Wife of Turgon; perished in the crossing of the Helcaraxe. 102, 160
   Elerrina 'Crowned with Stars', a name of Taniquetil. 32
   Elf-friends The Men of the Three Houses of Beor, Haleth, and Hador, the Edain. 169, 172-4, 231, 243, 311. In the Akallabeth and in Of the Rings of Power used of those Numenoreans who were not estranged from the Eldar; see Elendili. At 375 the reference is no doubt to the Men of Gondor and the Dunedain of the North.
   Elostirion Tallest of the towers upon Emyn Beraid, in which the palantir was placed. 362
   Elrond Son of Earendil and Elwing, who at the end of the First Age chose to belong to the Firstborn, and remained in Middle-earth until the end of the Third Age; master of Imladris (Rivendell) and keeper of Vilya, the Ring of Air, which he had received from Gil-galad. Called Master Elrond and Elrond Half-elven. The name means 'Star-dome'. 122, 306, 315, 322, 354-6, 366-75, 37S, Sons of Elrond 377
   Elros Son of Earendil and Elwing, who at the end of the First Age chose to be numbered among Men, and became the first King of Numenor (called Tar-Minyatur), living to a very great age. The name means 'Star-foam'. 305, 315, 322, 328-32, 336, 354, 360
   Elu Sindarin form of Elwe. 58,103, 125, 288
   Eluchil 'Heir of Elu (Thingol)', name of Dior, son of Beren and Luthien. See Dior.
   Elured Elder son of Dior; perished in the attack on Doriath by the sons of Feanor. The name means the same as Eluchil. 290, 292
   Elurin Younger son of Dior; perished with his brother Elured. The name means 'Remembrance of Elu (Thingol)'. 290,292
   Elvenhome See Eldamar.
   Elves See especially 37-9, 48-51, 53, 99, 121, 326-7; and see also Children of Iluvatar, Eldar; Dark Elves. Elves of the Light: see Calaquendi.
   Elwe Surnamed Singollo 'Greymantle'; leader with his brother Olwe of the hosts of the Teleri on the westward journey from Cuivienen, until he was lost in Nan Elmoth; afterwards Lord of the Sindar, ruling in Doriath with Melian; received the Silmaril from Beren; slain in Menegroth by the Dwarves. Called (Elu )Thingol in Sindarin. See Dark Elves, Thingol. 53-8, 60-1, 103, 289
   Elwing Daughter of Dior, who escaping from Doriath with the Silmaril wedded Earendil at the Mouths of Sirion and went with him to Valinor; mother of Elrond and Elros. The name means 'Star-spray'; see Lanlhir Lamath. 122, 178, 291-3, 302, 304-10, 315
   Emeldir Called the Man-hearted; wife of Barahir and mother of Beren; led the women and children of the House of Beor from Dorthonion after the Dagor Bragollach. (She was herself also a descendant of Beor the Old, and her father's name was Beren; this is not stated in the text.) 187, 194
   Emyn Beraid The Tower Hills' in the west of Eriador; see Elostirion. 360-2
   Enchanted Isles The islands set by the Valar in the Great Sea eastwards of Tol Eressea at the time of the Hiding of Valinor. 118, 306
   Encircling Mountains See Echoriath.
   Encircling Sea See Ekkaia.
   Endor 'Middle Land', Middle-earth. 101
   Engwar 'The Sickly', one of the Elvish names for Men, 119
   Eol Called the Dark Elf; the great smith who dwelt in Nan Elmoth, and took Aredhel Turgon's sister to wife; friend of the Dwarves; maker of the sword Anglachel (Gurthang); father of Maeglin; put to death in Gondolin. 104,158-65, 247
   Eonwe One of the mightiest of the Maiar; called the Herald of Manwe; leader of the host of the Valar in the attack on Morgoth at the end of the First Age. 24, 309-14, 321, 353
   Ephel Brandir 'The encircling fence of Brandir', dwellings of the Men of Brethil upon Amon Obel; also called the Ephel. 266, 270-2
   Ephel Duath 'Fence of Shadow', the mountain-range between Gondor and Mordor; also called the Mountains of Shadow. 361-2, 368
   Erchamion 'One-handed', the name of Beren after his escape from Angband. 222, 225, 242, 292
   Erech A hill in the west of Gondor, where was the Stone of Isildur (see The Return of the King V 2). 361
   Ered Engrin 'The Iron Mountains' in the far north. 128, 135-6, 139, 181, 193
   Ered Gorgoroth 'The Mountains of Terror', northward of Nan Dungortheb; also called the Gorgoroth. 90, 109, 144, 157, 176, 198, 214, 246
   Ered Lindon 'The Mountains of Lindon', another name for Ered Luin, the Blue Mountains. 147-8, 160, 167, 174, 238, 287, 290
   Ered Lomin 'The Echoing Mountains', forming the west-fence of Hithlum. 123, 140
   Ered Luin 'The Blue Mountains', also called Ered Lindon. After the destruction at the end of the First Age Ered Luin formed the north-western coastal range of Middle-earth. 56, 103, 107, 132-5, 147, 159, 167, 288, 354, 359
   Ered Nimrais The White Mountains (nimrais 'white horns'), the great range from east to west south of the Misty Mountains. 107
   Ered Wethrin 'The Mountains of Shadow', 'The Shadowy Mountains', the great curving range bordering Dor-nu-Fauglith (Ard-galen) on the west and forming the barrier between Hithlum and West Beleriand. 123-5, 127, 133, 137, 140-1, 150, 171, 182-3, 193, 206, 212, 232, 234, 238, 249, 254, 256, 261, 278, 281, 295
   Eregion 'Land of Holly' (called by Men Hollin ); Noldorin realm in the Second Age at the western feet of the Misty Mountains, where the Elven Rings were made. 355-7
   Ereinion 'Scion of Kings', the son of Fingon, known always by his surname Gil-galad. 186, 239, 302
   Erellont One of the three mariners who accompanied Earendil on his voyages. 307
   Eressea See Tol Eressea.
   Eriador The land between the Misty Mountains and the Blue, in which lay the Kingdom of Arnor (and also the Shire of the Hobbits). 55, 56, 104, 174, 330, 360, 366-7, 370, 376
   Eru 'The One', 'He that is Alone': Iluvatar. 3, 4, 17-9, 23, 41-4, 82, 95, 99, 102, 112-3, 322, 327-8, 332, 335, 347; also in Children of Eru.
   Esgalduin The river of Doriath, dividing the forests of Neldoreth and Region, and flowing into Sirion. The name means 'River under Veil'. 105, 144, 157, 199, 225, 269, 289
   Este One of the Valier, the spouse of Irmo (Lorien); her name means 'Rest'. 18, 21,24, 68, 114
   Estolad The land south of Nan Elmoth where the Men of the followings of Beor and Marach dwelt after they crossed the Blue Mountains into Beleriand; translated in the text as 'the Encampment'. 171-5
   Ezellohar The Green Mound of the Two Trees of Valinor; also called Corollaire. 33,44, 84, 86
   Faelivrin Name given to Finduilas by Gwindor. 257
   Faithful, The See Elendili.
   Falas The western coasts of Beleriand, south of Nevrast. 60, 106, 111, 124, 142, 194, 232, 239, 259
   Falathar One of the three mariners who accompanied Earendil on his voyages. 307
   Falathrim The Telerin Elves of the Falas, whose lord was Cirdan. 60
   Falmari The Sea-elves; name of the Teleri who departed from Middle-earth and went into the West. 54
   Feanor Eldest son of Finwe (the only child of Finwe and Miriel), half-brother of Fingolfin and Finarfin; greatest of the Noldor, and leader in their rebellion; deviser of the Feanorian script; maker of the Silmarils; slain in Mithrim in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath. His name was Curufinwe (curu 'skill'), and he gave this name to his fifth son, Curufin; but he was himself known always by his mother's name for him, Feanaro 'Spirit of Fire', which was given the Sindarin form Feanor Chapters V-IX and XIII passim; see especially 63, 67-9, 71, 112. Elsewhere his name occurs chiefly in the sons of Feanor.
   Feanturi 'Masters of Spirits', the Valar Namo (Mandos) and Irmo (Lorien). 21
   Felagund The name by which King Finrod was known after the establishment of Nargothrond; it was Dwarvish in origin (felak-gundu 'cave-hewer', but translated in the text as 'Lord of Caves', 61). For references see Finrod.
   Finarfin The third son of Finwe, the younger of Feanor's half-brothers; remained in Aman after the Exile of the Noldor and ruled the remnant of his people in Tirion. Alone among the Noldorin princes he and his descendants had golden hair, derived from his mother Indis, who was a Vanyarin Elf (see Vanyar). 63, 69, 75. 93-6, 100, 117, 202, 213, 310. Many other occurrences of the name of Finarfin relate to his sons or his people.
   Finduilas Daughter of Orodreth, loved by Gwindor; captured in the sack of Nargothrond, and killed by Orcs at the Crossings of Teiglin. 257-9, 261-6,277
   Fingolfin The second son of Finwe, the elder of Feanor's half-brothers; High King of the Noldor in Beleriand, dwelling in Hithlum; slain by Morgoth in single combat, 63, 69, 74-7, 83, 93-5,v100-2, 115, 123, 126-8, 129, 133, 135-6, 140, 144, 154, 171, 177, 180-1, 183-7, 240. Many other occurrences of the name of Fingolfin relate to his sons or his people.
   Fingon The eldest son of Fingolfin, called the Valiant; rescued Maedhros from Thangorodrim; High King of the Noldor after the death of his father; slain by Gothmog in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 64, 94-6, 98, 101, 128-9, 137, 140, 144, 156, 166, 183, 186, 194, 198, 231-9, 302, 354
   Finrod The eldest son of Finarfin, called 'the Faithful' and 'the Friend of Men'. Founder and King of Nargothrond, whence his name Felagund; encountered in. Ossiriand the first Men to cross the Blue Mountains; rescued by Barahir in the Dagor Bragollach; redeemed his oath to Barahir by accompanying Beren on his quest; slain in defence of Beren in the dungeons of Tol-in-Gaurhoth. The following references include those to Felagund used alone: 64, 93, 96, 102, 127, 130, 133-4, 142-6, 148, 151, 154-5, 167-72, 176, 178, 182-3, 193, 197, 201-13, 223, 250, 259, 261, 264, 267-8, 284-5, 287
   Finwe Leader of the Noldor on the westward journey from Cuivienen; King of the Noldor in Aman; father of Feanor, Fingolfin, and Finarfin, slain by Morgoth at Formenos. 53-6, 60-71, 75-8, 83, 87, 92, 152; other references are to his sons or his house.
   Firimar 'Mortals', one of the Elvish names for Men. 119
   Firstborn, The The Elder Children of Iluvatar, the Elves. 7, 9, 13, 34, 37-8, 41-2, 44, 48, 309, 315, 321, 325, 355, 370, 378
   Followers, The The Younger Children of Iluvatar, Men; translation of Hildor. 7
   Ford of Stones See Sarn Athrad.
   Fords of Aros See Arossiach.
   Formenos 'Northern Fortress', the stronghold of Feanor and his sons in the north of Valinor, built after the banishment of Feanor from Tirion. 79, 83, 88, 152
   Fornost 'Northern Fortress'. Numenorean city on the North Downs in Eriador. 361
   Forsaken Elves See Eglath.
   Frodo The Ringbearer. 377
   Fuinur A renegade Numenorean who became mighty among the Haradrim at the end of the Second Age, 363
   Gabilgathol See Belegost. 104
   Galadriel Daughter of Finarfin and sister of Finrod Felagund; one of the leaders of the Noldorin rebellion against the Valar; wedded Celeborn of Doriath and with him remained in Middle-earth after the end of the First Age; keeper of Nenya, the Ring of Water, in Lothlorien. 64, 93-4, 102, 134-5, 151-3, 155, 172, 204, 290, 315, 370-3
   Galathilion 'The White Tree of Tirion, the image of Telperion made by Yavanna for the Vanyar and the Noldor' 62, 324, 361
   Galdor Called the Tall; son of Hador Lorindol and lord of Dor-lomin after him; father of Hurin and Huor; slain at Eithel Sirion. 177, 183, 187, 190-3, 242, 257, 284, 311
   galvorn The metal devised by Eol. 159
   Gandalf The name among Men of Mithrandir, (the of the Istari (Wizards); see Olorin. 372
   Gates of Summer A great festival of Gondolin, on the eve of which the city was assaulted 'by the forces of Morgoth. 300
   Gelion The great river of East Beleriand, rising in Himring and Mount Rerir and fed by the rivers of Ossiriand flowing down from the Blue Mountains. 56-7, 103-4, 109, 132, 144-8, 167, 170, 174, 184, 229, 287-90
   Gelmir (I) Elf of Nargothrond, brother of Gwindor, captured in the Dagor Bragollach and afterwards put to death in front of Eithel Sirion, as a provocation to its defenders, before the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 230, 233
   Gelmir (2) Elf of the people of Angrod, who with Arminas came to Nargothrond to warn Orodreth of its peril. 260
   Gildor One of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion. 187
   Gil-Estel 'Star of Hope', Sindarin name for Earendil bearing the Silmaril in his ship Vingilot. 310
   Gil-galad 'Star of Radiance', the name by which Ereinion son of Fingon was afterwards known. After the death of Turgon he became the last High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, and remained in Lindon after the end of the First Age; leader with Elendil of the Last Alliance of Men and Elves and slain with him in combat with Sauron. 186, 239, 302, 305, 315, 330-1, 335, 359-60, 362-5, 369-70
   Gimilkhad Younger son of Ar-Gimilzor and Inzilbeth and father of Ar-Pharazon, the last King of Numenor. 332
   Gimilzor See Ar-Gimilzor.
   Ginglith River in West Beleriand flowing into the Narog above Nargothrond. 204, 261
   Gladden Fields Partial translation of Loeg Ningloron; the great stretches of reeds and iris (gladden) in and about the Anduin, where Isildur was slain and the One Ring lost 367, 374
   Glaurung The first of the Dragons of Morgoth, called the Father of Dragons; in the Dagor Bragollach, the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, and the Sack of Nargothrond; cast his spell upon Turin and upon Nienor; slain by Turin at Cabed-en-Aras. Called also the Great Worm and the Worm of Morgoth. 137, 177, 181-2, 184, 235-6, 261-5, 268, 271-9, 283-4, 296, 300
   Glingal 'Hanging Flame', the image of Laurelin made by Turgon in Gondolin. 151
   Glirhuin A minstrel of Brethil. 283-4
   Gloredhel Daughter of Hador Lorindol of Dor-lomin and sister of Galdor; wedded Haldir of Brethil. 190
   Glorfindel Elf of Gondolin, who fell to his death in Cirith Thoronath in combat with a Balrog after the escape from the sack of the city. The name means 'Golden-haired'. 237, 301-2
   Golodhrim The Noldor. Golodh was the Sindarin form of Quenya Noldo, and –rim a collective plural ending; cf. Annon-in-Gelydh, the Gate of the Noldor. 160
   Gondolin 'The Hidden Rock' (see Ondolinde), secret city of King Turgon surrounded by the Encircling Mountains (Echoriath). 64, 125, 150-1, 157, 186, 191-3, 221, 231-2, 234, 237, 240, 252, 281-2, 295-302, 305, 315, 322
   Gondolindrim The people of Gondolin. 166, 192, 234
   Gondor 'Land of Stone', name of the southern Numenorean kingdom in Middle-earth, established by Isildur and Anarion. 361-9, 376-7. City of Gondor: Minas Tirith. 377
   Gonnhirrim 'Masters of Stone', a Sindarin name for the Dwarves. 103
   Gorgoroth (1) See Ered Gorgoroth.
   Gorgoroth (2) A plateau in Mordor, between the converging Mountains of Shadow and Mountains of Ash. 363, 365, 368
   Gorlim Called the Unhappy; one of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion, who was ensnared by a phantom of his wife Eilinel and revealed to Sauron the hiding-place of Barahir. 187, 195-7
   Gorthaur The name of Sauron in Sindarin. 26,187, 353
   Gorthol 'Dread Helm', the name that Turin took as one of the Two Captains in the land of Dor-Cuarthol. 252
   Gothmog Lord of Balrogs, high-captain of Angband, slayer of Feanor, Fingon, and Ecthelion. (The same name was borne in the Third Age by the Lieutenant of Minas Morgul, The Return of the King V 6.) 125, 236, 238, 300
   Greater Gelion One of the two tributary branches of the river Gelion in the north, rising in Mount Rerir. 146
   Great Lands Middle-earth. 324
   Great River See Anduin.
   Green-elves Translation of Laiquendi; the Nandorin Elves of Ossiriand. For their origin see 107, and for the name 110, 133, 147-8, 167,170, 184, 238, 291
   Greenwood the Great The great forest east of the Misty Mountains, afterwards named Mirkwood. 360, 366, 371-2, 375
   Grey-elven tongue See Sindarin.
   Grey-elves See Sindar.
   Grey Havens See (The) Havens, Mithlond.
   Greymantle See Singollo, Thingol.
   Grinding Ice See Helcaraxe.
   Grond The great mace of Morgoth, with which he fought Fingolfin; called the Hammer of the Underworld. The battering-ram used against the Gate of Minas Tirith was named after it (The Return of the King V 4). 185
   Guarded Plain See Talath Dirnen.
   Guarded Realm See Valinor. 82, 98
   Guilin Father of Gelmir and Gwindor, Elves of Nargothrond. 230, 233, 253, 256, 261
   Gundor Younger son of Hador Lorindol, lord of Dor-lomin; slain with his father at Eithel Sirion in the Dagor Bragollach. 177, 183, 311
   Gurthang 'Iron of Death', name of Beleg's sword Anglachel after it was reforged for Turin in Nargothrond, and from which he was named Mormegil. 258, 262, 265-6, 273, 276-8
   Gwaith-i-Mirdain 'People of the Jewel-smiths', name of the fellowship of craftsmen in Eregion, greatest of whom was Celebrimbor son of Curufin. 354-5
   Gwindor Elf of Nargothrond, brother of Gelmir; enslaved in Angband, but escaped and aided Beleg in the rescue of Turin; brought Turin to Nargothrond; loved Finduilas Orodreth's daughter; slain in the Battle or Tumhalad. 230, 232-4, 254-61
   Hadhodrond The Sindarin name of Khazad-dum (Moria). 104,354
   Hador Called Lorindol 'Goldenhead', also Hador the Golden-haired; lord of Dor-lomin, vassal of Fingolfin; father of Galdor father of Hurin; slain at Eithel Sirion in the Dagor Bragollach. The House of Hador was called the Third House of the Edain. 177-8, 183, 187, 190, 193. House of, People of, Hador 177, 189-90, 194, 231, 237-9, 243, 253, 265, 280, 308. Helm of Hador: see Dragon-helm of Dor-lomin.
   Haladin The second people of Men to enter Beleriand; afterwards called the People of Haleth, dwelling in the Forest of Brethil, also the Men of Brethil. 171, 174-5, 187, 190, 194, 234,238
   Haldad Leader of the Haladin in their defence against the attack on them by Orcs in Thargelion, and slain there; father of the Lady Haleth. 174-6
   Haldan Son of Haldar; leader of the Haladin after the death of the Lady Haleth. 175
   Haldar Son of Haldad of the Haladin, and brother of the Lady Haleth; slain with his father in the Orc-raid on Thargelion. 175-6
   Haldir Son of Halmir of Brethil; wedded Gloredhel, daughter of Hador of Dor-lomin; slain in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 190, 231-2, 234, 238
   Haleth Called the Lady Haleth; leader of the Haladin (who were named from her the People of Haleth) from Thargelion to the lands west of Sirion. 175-6. House of, People of, Haleth 175-8, 190, 231, 266, 272-3
   Half-elven Translation of Sindarin Peredhel, plural Peredhil, applied to Elrond and Elros, 304, 315, 322, 354, 357; and to Earendil, 298
   Halflings Translation of Periannath (Hobbits). 377
   Halls of Awaiting The Halls of Mandos. 72
   Halmir Lord of the Haladin, son of Haldan; with Beleg of Doriath defeated the Orcs that came south from the Pass of Sirion after the Dagor Bragollach. 190, 231
   Handir Son of Haldir and Gloredhel, father of Brandir the Lame; lord of the Haladin after Haldir's death; slain in Brethil in battle with Orcs. 238, 260, 266
   Haradrim The Men of Harad ('the South'), the lands south of Mordor. 363
   Hareth Daughter of Helmir of Brethil; wedded Galdor of Dor-lomin; mother of Hurin and Huor. 190, 194
   Hathaldir Called the Young; one of the twelve companions of Barahir on Dorthonion. 187
   Hathol Father of Hador Lorindol. 177
   Haudh-en-Arwen 'The Ladybarrow', the burial-mound of Haleth in the Forest of Brethil. 176
   Haudh-en-Elleth The mound in which Finduilas was buried, near the Crossings of Teiglin. 267, 270-1, 275, 277
   Haudh-en-Ndengin 'The Mound of Slain' in the desert of Anfauglith, where were piled the bodies of the Elves and Men that died in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 241-2
   Haudh-en-Nirnaeth 'The Mound of Tears', another name of Haudh-en-Ndengin. 241
   Havens, The Brithombar and Eglarest on the coast of Beleriand: 124, 133, 144, 186, 239. The Havens of Sirion at the end of the First Age: 294, 305, 313. The Grey Havens (Mithlond ) in the Gulf of Lhun: 359, 370-1, 378. Alqualonde, the Haven of the Swans or Swanhaven, is also called simply The Haven: 97, 101
   Helcar The Inland Sea in the northeast of Middle-earth, where once stood the mountain of the lamp of Illuin; the mere of Cuivienen where the first Elves awoke is described as a bay in this sea. 48, 54
   Helcaraxe The strait between Araman and Middle-earth; also referred to as the Grinding Ice. 51-2, 60, 88, 100-1, 126, 136, 154, 160
   Helevorn 'Black Glass', a lake in the north of Thargelion, below Mount Rerir, where Caranthir dwelt. 132, 148, 184
   Helluin The star Sirius. 48, 69
   Herumor A renegade Numenorean who became mighty among the Haradrim at the end of the Second Age. 363
   Herunumen 'Lord of the West', Quenya name of Ar-Adunakhor. 330
   Hidden Kingdom Name given both to Doriath, 135, 198, 200,277, and to Gondolin, 156,298
   High-elven See Quenya.
   High Elves See Eldar. 370
   High Faroth See Taur-en-Faroth.
   Hildor 'The Followers', 'The Aftercomers', Elvish name for Men, as the Younger Children of Iluvatar. 114, 119
   Hildorien The land in the east of Middle-earth where the first Men (Hildor ) awoke. 120, 169
   Himlad 'Cool Plain', the region where Celegorm and Curufin dwelt south of the Pass of Aglon. 147, 158, 161
   Himring The great hill west of Maglor's Gap on which was the stronghold of Maedhros; translated in the text as 'Ever-cold'. 131,147-8,157, 183-4, 214, 223, 231
   Hirilorn The great beech-tree in Doriath with three trunks, in which Luthien was imprisoned. The name means 'Tree of the Lady'. 208, 226
   Hisilome 'Land of Mist', Quenya name of Hithlum. 140
   Hithaeglir 'Line of Misty Peaks': the Misty Mountains, or Mountains of Mist. (The form Hithaeglin on the map to The Lord of the Rings is an error.) 55, 104, 107, 360, 364, 366
   Hither Lands Middle-earth (also called the Outer Lands). 57, 59-61, 296, 304, 311, 315, 323, 371
   Hithlum 'Land of Mist' (see 140), the region bounded on the east and south by Ered Wethrin and on the west by Ered Lomin; see Hisilome. 52, 90, 123, 126-8, 130, 137, 140-1, 144, 146, 157, 171, 181-9, 193, 221, 231-4, 238-9, 242-4,254, 280, 281, 294-5
   Hollin See Eregion. 354
   Hollowbold Translation of Nogrod: 'hollow dwelling' (early English bold, noun related to the verb build). 104
   Huan The great wolfhound of Valinor that Orome gave to Celegorm; friend and helper of Beren and Luthien; slew and slain by Carcharoth. The name means 'great dog, hound'. 209-18, 222, 225-6
   Hunthor A Man of the Haladin in Brethil who accompanied Turin in his attack on Glaurung at Cabed-en-Aras and was killed there by a falling stone. 273
   Huor Son of Galdor of Dor-lomin, husband of Rian and father of Tuor; went to Gondolin with Hurin his brother; slain in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. 150, 177, 190, 232, 236, 237, 242, 294, 296, 298, 301, 311
   Hurin Called Thalion 'the Steadfast', 'the Strong'; son of Galdor of Dor-lomin, husband of Morwen and father of Turin and Nienor; lord of Dor-lomin, vassal of Fingon. Went with Huor his brother to Gondolin; captured by Morgoth in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad and set upon Thangorodrim for many years; after his release slew Mim in Nargothrond and brought the Nauglamir to King Thingol. 150, 177, 191-4, 232-46, 252, 255-9, 261-7, 271, 274-6, 278-87, 294, 298, 311
   Hyarmentir The highest mountain in the regions south of Valinor. 81
   Iant Iaur 'The Old Bridge' over the Esgalduin on the northern borders of Doriath; also called the Bridge of Esgalduin, 144-5, 157
   Ibun One of the sons of Mim the Petty-dwarf. 249, 251-2
   Idril Called Celebrindal 'Silverfoot'; the daughter (and only child) of Turgon and Elenwe; wife of Tuor, mother of Earendil, with whom she escaped from Gondolin to the Mouths of Sirion; departed thence with Tuor into the West 151, 160, 163, 165-6, 296-300, 303-4, 308, 315,322
   Illuin One of the Lamps of the Valar made by Aule. Illuin stood in the northern part of Middle-earth, and after the overthrow of the mountain by Melkor the Inland Sea of Helcar was formed there. 30-1, 48, 59
   Ilmare A Maia, the handmaid of Varda, 24
   Ilmen The region above the air where the stars are. 116-9, 349
   Iluvatar 'Father of All, Eru. 3-11, 17-8, 23, 25, 34-42, 46-50, 58, 70, 73, 74, 86, 93, 102, 121, 227, 313, 322-3, 326-7, 336, 344-5
   Imlach Father of Amlach. 173
   Imladris 'Rivendell' (literally, 'Deep Dale of the Cleft'), Elrond's dwelling in a valley of the Misty Mountains. 282, 364, 367-70, 377
   Indis Vanyarin Elf, close kin of Ingwe; second wife of Finwe, mother of Fingolfin and Finarfin. 63, 69-70, 75
   Ingwe Leader of the Vanyar, the first of the three hosts of the Eldar on the westward journey from Cuivienen. In Aman he dwelt upon Taniquetil, and was held High King of all the Elves. 53-4, 60, 62, 65, 69, 117, 310
   Inziladun Elder son of Ar-Gimilzor and Inzilbeth; afterwards named Tar-Palantir. 332
   Inzilbeth Queen of Ar-Gimilzor; of the house of the lords of Andunie. 331
   Irmo The Vala usually named Lorien, the place of his dwelling. Irmo means 'Desirer' or 'Master of Desire'. 21, 24, 68
   Iron Mountains See Ered Engrin.
   Isengard Translation (to represent the language of Rohan) of the Elvish name Angrenost. 361, 373-7
   Isil Quenya name of the Moon. 114-5
   Isildur Elder son of Elendil, who with his father and his brother Anarion escaped from the Drowning of Numenor and founded in Middle-earth the Numenorean realms in exile; lord of Minas Ithil; cut the Ruling Ring from Sauron's hand; slain by Orcs in the Anduin when the Ring slipped from his finger. 337, 342, 346, 360-8, 374. Heirs of Isildur 369, 373. Heir of Isildur=Aragorn 377
   Istari The Wizards. See Curunir, Saruman; Mithrandir, Gandalf, Olorin; Radagast. 372
   Ivrin The lake and falls beneath Ered Wethrin where the river Narog rose. 140, 257. Pools of Ivrin 132, 257, 264, 296. Falls of Ivrin 142, 206. See Eithel Ivrin.
   kelvar An Elvish word retained in the speeches of Yavanna and Manwe in Chapter II: 'animals, living things that move'. 43-4
   Kementari 'Queen of the Earth', a title of Yavanna. 21, 33-5, 44
   Khazad The name of the Dwarves in their own language (Khuzdul ). 103
   Khazad-dum The great mansions of the Dwarves of Durin's race in the Misty Mountains (Hadhodrond, Moria ). See Khazad; dum is probably a plural or collective, meaning 'excavations, halls, mansions'. 42, 104, 354
   Khim Son of Mim the Petty-dwarf, slam by one of Turin's outlaw band. 249
   King's Men Numenoreans hostile to the Eldar and the Elendili. 328-9, 332
   Kinslaying, The The slaying of the Teleri by the Noldor at Alqualonde. 98, 100-1, 120, 130, 152, 154, 166, 169, 188
   Ladros The lands to the northeast of Dorthonion that were granted by the Noldorin Kings to the Men of the House of Beor. 177
   Laer Cu Beleg 'The Song of the Great Bow', made by Turin at Eithel Ivrin in memory of Beleg Cuthalion. 256
   Laiquendi 'The Green-elves' of Ossiriand. 110
   Lalaith 'Laughter', daughter of Hurin and Morwen who died in childhood. 242
   Lammoth 'The Great Echo', region north of the Firth of Drengist, named from the echoes of Morgoth's cry in his struggle with Ungoliant. 89-90, 123
   Land of Shadow See Mordor.
   Land of the Dead that Live See Dor Firn-i-Guinar.
   Land of the Star Numenor. 339, 341
   Lanthir Lamath 'Waterfall of Echoing Voices', where Dior had his house in Ossiriand, and after which his daughter Elwing ('Star-spray') was named. 289
   Last Alliance The league made at the end of the Second Age between Elendil and Gil-galad to defeat Sauron. 364
   Laurelin 'Song of Gold', the younger of the Two Trees of Valinor. 34, 64, 82, 114-6, 151
   Lay of Leithian The long poem concerning the lives of Beren and Luthien from which the prose account in The Silmarillion was derived. Leithian is translated 'Release from Bondage'. 195, 198, 203, 206-8, 226
   Legolin The third of the tributaries of Gelion in Ossiriand. 147
   lembas Sindarin name of the waybread of the Eldar (from earlier lennmbass 'journey-bread'; in Quenya coimas 'life-bread'). 247, 251, 256
   Lenwe The leader of the Elves from the host of the Teleri who refused to cross the Misty Mountains on the west-ward journey from Cuivienen (the Nandor); father of Denethor. 56, 108
   Lhun River in Eriador flowing into the sea in the Gulf of Lhun.354, 360
   Linaewen 'Lake of birds', the great mere in Nevrast. 141
   Lindon A name of Ossiriand in the First Age; see 147. After the tumults at the end of the First Age the name Lindon was retained for the lands west of the Blue Mountains that still remained above the Sea: 354, 355, 359, 370
   Lindorie Mother of Inzilbeth. 331
   Little Gelion One of the two tributary branches of the river Gelion in the north, rising in the Hill of Himring. 146
   Loeg Ningloron 'Pools of the golden water-flowers'; see Gladden Fields.
   lomelindi Quenya word meaning 'dusk-singers', nightingales. 57
   Lomion 'Son of Twilight', the Quenya name that Aredhel gave to Maeglin. 159
   Lonely Isle See Tol Eressea.
   Lord of Waters See Ulmo.
   Lords of the West See Valar.
   Lorellin The lake in Lorien in Valinor where the Vala Este sleeps by day. 21
   Lorgan Chief of the Easterling Men in Hithlum after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, by whom Tuor was enslaved. 294
   Lorien (1) The name of the gardens and dwelling-place of the Vala Irmo, who was himself usually called Lorien. 18, 21, 24, 57, 68, 106, 114, 289
   Lorien (2) The land ruled by Celeborn and Galadriel between the rivers Celebrant and Anduin. Probably the original name of this land was altered to the form of the Quenya name Lorien of the gardens of the Vala Irmo in Valinor. In Lothlorien the Sindarin word loth 'flower' is prefixed. 370
   Lorindol 'Goldenhead'; see Hador.
   Losgar The place of the burning of the ships of the Teleri by Feanor, at the mouth of the Firth of Drengist, 101, 111, 123, 127, 140, 152, 154
   Lothlann 'The wide and empty', the great plain north of the March of Maedhros. 147, 184, 255
   Lothlorien 'Lorien of the Blossom'; see Lorien (2). 370
   Luinil Name of a star (one shining with a blue light). 48
   Lumbar Name of a star. 48
   Luthien The daughter of King Thingol and Melian the Maia, who after the fulfilment of the Quest of the Silmaril and the death of Beren chose to become mortal and to share his fate. See Tinuviel. 103, 108, 147, 177, 195, 199-203, 208-30, 242, 290-2, 305, 309, 315, 322
   Mablung Elf of Doriath, chief captain of Thingol, friend of Turin; called 'of the Heavy Hand' (which is the meaning of the name Mablung); slain in Menegroth by the Dwarves. 133, 224-6, 230, 244, 267-9, 277-8, 284, 289-90
   Maedhros The eldest son of Feanor, called the Tall; rescued by Fingon from Thangorodrim; held the Hill of Himring and the lands about; formed the Union of Maedhros that ended in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad; bore one of the Silmarils with him to his death at the end of the First Age. 63, 93, 126-32, 135-6, 140, 144-8, 167, 171, 184, 189, 214, 229-35, 239, 292, 305, 310, 313-4
   Maeglin 'Sharp Glance', son of Eol and Aredhel Turgon's sister, born in Nan Elmoth; became mighty in Gondolin, and betrayed it to Morgoth; slain in the sack of the city by Tuor. See Lomion. 104, 159-66, 192, 237, 247, 297-9
   Maglor The second son of Feanor, a great singer and minstrel; held the lands called Maglor's Gap; at the end of the First Age seized with Maedhros the two Silmarils that remained in Middle-earth, and cast the one that he took into the Sea. 63, 93, 98, 133, 135, 138, 148, 167, 184, 222, 236, 305-6, 310, 313-4
   Maglor's Gap The region between the northern arms of Gelion where there were no hills of defence against the North. 135,148,184
   Magor Son of Malach Aradan; leader of the Men of the following of Marach who entered West Beleriand. 172, 177
   Mahal The name given to Aule by the Dwarves. 42
   Mahanaxar The Ring of Doom outside the gates of Valmar, in which were set the thrones of the Valar where they sat in council. 33, 50, 52, 77, 86-8, 91, 95, 112
   Mahtan A great smith of the Noldor, father of Nerdanel the wife of Feanor. 69, 75
   Maiar Ainur of lesser degree than the Valar (singular Maia). 11, 23-6, 30, 57, 61, 83, 91, 105, 108, 111, 114, 229, 289, 292, 322, 353
   Malach Son of Marach; given the Elvish name Aradan. 171, 177
   Malduin A tributary of the Teiglin; the name probably means 'Yellow River'. 251
   Malinalda 'Tree of Gold', a name of Laurelin. 33
   Mandos The place of the dwelling in Aman of the Vala properly called Namo, the Judge, though this name was seldom used, and he himself was usually referred to as Mandos. Named as Vala: 18, 21-3,47, 52, 70, 73, 77-8, 87, 98, 113, 118, 121, 129-30, 154, 227, 308, 316. Named as the place of his dwelling (including Halls of Mandos; also Halls of Awaiting, Houses of the Dead ): 22, 38, 42, 52, 61, 68-9, 73, 99, 121, 125, 227, 289. With reference to the Doom of the Noldor and the Curse of Mandos: 150, 154-5, 166, 169, 201, 205, 213, 297
   Manwe The chief of the Valar, called also Sulimo, the Elder King, the Ruler of Arda. Passim; see especially 11, 18-9, 35, 70, 129
   Marach Leader of the third host of Men to enter Beleriand, ancestor of Hador Lorindol. 171-2, 180
   March of Maedhros The open lands to the north of the headwaters of the river Gelion, held by Maedhros and his brothers against attack on East Beleriand; also called the eastern March. 131-2, 147
   Mardil Called the Faithful; the first Ruling Steward of Gondor. 369
   Mar-nu-Falmar 'The Land under the Waves', name of Numenor after the Downfall. 347
   Melian A Maia, who left Valinor and came to Middle-earth; afterwards the Queen of King Thingol in Doriath, about which she set a girdle of enchantment, the Girdle of Melian; mother of Luthien, and foremother of Elrond and Elros. 24-5, 57-8, 61, 103-6, 109, 110-1, 121, 130, 135, 144-5, 151-4, 158, 172, 176, 182, Chapter XIX passim, 229-30, Chapters XXI, XXII passim, 315, 322
   Melkor The Quenya name for the great rebellious Vala, the beginning of evil, in his origin the mightiest of the Ainur; afterwards named Morgoth, Bauglir, the Dark Lord, the Enemy, etc. The meaning of Melkor was 'He who arises in Might'; the Sindarin form was Belegur, but it was never used, save in a deliberately altered form Belegurth 'Great Death'. Passim (after the rape of the Silmarils usually called Morgoth); see especially 4-5, 8, 25, 50, 51, 70-1, 90-2, 117, 251, 320
   Men See especially 37-8, 74,119-21,167-70, 178, 319-20, 326-7; and see also Atani, Children of Iluvatar, Easterlings.
   Menegroth 'The Thousand Caves', the hidden halls of Thingol and Melian on the river Esgalduin in Doriath; see especially 58, 106-8, 111-2, 125, 130, 134, 145, 155, 200, 203, 208, 217, 222-6, 229, 243-7, 252, 267, 269, 286-91
   Meneldil Son of Anarion, King of Gondor. 368
   Menelmacar 'Swordsman of the Sky', the constellation Orion. 48
   Meneltarma 'Pillar of Heaven', the mountain in the midst of Numenor, upon whose summit was the Hallow of Eru Iluvatar. 322-4, 329, 332-3, 336, 343, 345, 348
   Meres of Twilight See Aelin-uial.
   Mereth Aderthad The 'Feast of Reuniting' held by Fingolfin near the Pools of Ivrin. 132-3
   Mickleburg Translation of Belegost: 'great fortress'. 104
   Middle-earth The lands to the east of the Great Sea; also called the Hither Lands, the Outer Lands, the Great Lands, and Endor. Passim.
   Mim The Petty-dwarf, in whose house (Bar-en-Danwedh ) on Amon Rudh Turin dwelt with the outlaw band, and by whom their lair was betrayed to the Orcs; slain by Hurin in Nargothrond. 248-53, 284
   Minas Anor 'Tower of the Sun' (also simply Anor), afterwards called Minas Tirith; the city of Anarion, at the feet of Mount Mindolluin. 361-2, 365-8, 377
   Minas Ithil 'Tower of the Moon' afterwards called Minas Morgul; the city of Isildur, built on a shoulder of the Ephel Duath. 361-2, 368
   Minas Morgul 'Tower of Sorcery' (also simply Morgul), name of Minas Ithil after its capture by the Ringwraiths. 368-9, 377
   Minastir See Tar-Minastir.
   Minas Tirith (1) 'Tower of Watch', built by Finrod Felagund on Tol Sirion; see Tol-in-Gaurhoth. 142, 187-9, 251
   Minas Tirith (2) Later name of Minas Anor. 297. Called the City of Gondor. 377
   Mindeb A tributary of Sirion, between Dimbar and the Forest of Neldoreth. 144, 246
   Mindolluin 'Towering Blue-head', the great mountain behind Minas Anor. 361, 377
   Mindon Eldalieva 'Lofty Tower of the Eldalie', the tower of Ingwe in the city of Tirion; also simply the Mindon. 62,76,91,96,100
   Miriel (1) The first wife of Finwe, mother of Feanor; died after Feanor's birth. Called Serinde 'the Broideress', 63, 67-8, 75
   Miriel (2) Daughter of Tar-Palantir, forced into marriage by Ar-Pharazon, and as his queen named Ar-Zimraphel; also called Tar-Miriel. 345-6
   Mirkwood See Greenwood the Great.
   Misty Mountains See Hithaeglir.
   Mithlond The Grey Havens', harbours of the Elves on the Gulf of Lhun; also referred to as the Havens. 354, 359, 371, 378
   Mithrandir 'The Grey Pilgrim', Elvish name of Gandalf (Olorin), one of the Istari (Wizards). 373-7
   Mithrim The name of the great lake in the east of Hithlum, and also of the region about it and of the mountains to the west, separating Mithrim from Dor-lomin. The name was originally that of the Sindarin Elves who dwelt there. 124-8, 131, 242, 294
   Mordor The Black Land', also called the Land of Shadow; Sauron's realm east of the mountains of the Ephel Duath. 330, 347, 357, 360-8, 376
   Morgoth The Black Enemy', name of Melkor, first given to him by Feanor after the rape of the Silmarils. 26, 71, 88 and thereafter passim. See Melkor.
   Morgul See Minas Morgul
   Moria 'The Black Chasm', later name for Khazad-dum (Hadhodrond). 104, 354, 357, 364
   Moriquendi 'Elves of the Darkness'; see Dark Elves. 54, 58, 103, 125
   Mormegil 'The Black Sword', name given to Turin as captain of the host of Nargothrond; see Gurthang. 258-9, 265-7, 271, 275, 278
   Morwen Daughter of Baragund (nephew of Barahir, the father of Beren); wife of Hurin and mother of Turin and Nienor; called Eledhwen (translated in the text as 'Elfsheen') and the Lady of Dor-lomin. 178, 187, 194, 241-3, 258-60, 264-5, 267-9, 277, 280, 283, 285
   Mountain of Fire See Orodruin.
   Mountains: of Aman, of Defence, see Pelori; of the East, see Orocarni; of Iron, see Ered Engrin; of Mist, see Hithaeglir; of Mithrim, see Mithrim; of Shadow, see Ered Wethrin and Ephel Duath; of Terror, see Ered Gorgoroth.
   Mount Doom See Amon Amarth.
   Music of the Ainur See Ainulindale.
   Nahar The horse of the Vala Orome, said by the Eldar to be so named on account of his voice. 22, 37, 49-50, 54, 85, 108
   Namo A Vala, one of the Aratar; usually named Mandos, the place of his dwelling. Namo means 'Ordainer, Judge'. 21
   Nandor Said to mean 'Those who turn back': the Nandor were those Elves from the host of the Teleri who refused to cross the Misty Mountains on the westward journey from Cuivienen, but of whom a part, led by Denethor, came long afterwards over the Blue Mountains and dwelt in Ossiriand (the Green-elves). 55, 107, 146, 244
   Nan Dungortheb Also Dungortheb; translated in the text as 'Valley of Dreadful Death'. The valley between the precipices of Ered Gorgoroth and the Girdle of Melian. 90, 144, 157, 198, 214
   Nan Elmoth The forest east of the river Celon where Elwe (Thingol) was enchanted by Melian and lost; afterwards the dwelling-place of Eol. 58, 61, 104, 158-62, 170, 247,289
   Nan-tathren 'Willow-vale', translated as 'the Land of Willows', where the river Narog flowed into Sirion. In Treebeard's song in The Two Towers III 4 Quenya forms of the name are used: in the willow-meads of Tasarinan; Nan-tasarion. 142, 239, 301-2
   Nargothrond 'The great underground fortress on the river Narog', founded by Finrod Felagund and destroyed by Glaurung; also the realm of Nargothrond extending east and west of the Narog. 134-5, 142-6, 151, 155, 167, 170, 176, 182-3, 188-9, 193, 203-7, 210, 214, 223, 230, 232-4, 239, Chapter XXI passim, 284-5, 287, 295, 297, 354
   Narn i Hin Hurin 'The Tale of the Children of Hurin', the long lay from which Chapter XXI was derived; ascribed to the poet Dirhavel, a Man who lived at the Havens of Sirion in the days of Earendil and perished in the attack of the sons of Feanor. Narn signifies a tale made in verse, but to be spoken and not sung, 243
   Narog The chief river of West Beleriand, rising at Ivrin under Ered Wethrin and flowing into Sirion in Nan-tathren. 109, 133-4, 142, 145, 203-6, 268, 284
   Narsil The sword of Elendil, made by Telchar of Nogrod, that was broken when Elendil died in combat with Sauron; from the shards it was reforged for Aragorn and named Anduril. 364-5
   Narsilion The Song of the Sun and Moon. 113
   Narya One of the Three Rings of the Elves, the Ring of Fire or the Red Ring; borne by Cirdan and afterwards by Mithrandir. 357, 370, 378
   Nauglamir 'The Necklace of the Dwarves', made for Finrod Felagund by the Dwarves, brought by Hurin out of Nargothrond to Thingol, and the cause of his death. 134, 285-7, 291
   Naugrim 'The Stunted People', Sindarin name for the Dwarves. 103-5, 107-9, 132, 159, 161, 231, 236, 289
   Nazgul See Ring-wraiths.
   Necklace of the Dwarves See Nauglamir.
   Neithan Name given to himself by Turin among the outlaws, translated as 'The Wronged' (literally 'one who is deprived'). 245
   Neldoreth The great beech-forest forming the northern part of Doriath; called Taur-na-Neldor in Treebeard's song in The Two Towers HI 4. 57, 103, 105, 109, 145, 199, 208, 242, 289
   Nenar Name of a star. 48
   Nen Girith 'Shuddering Water', name given to Dimrost, the falls of Celebros in the Forest of Brethil. 270-4, 276
   Nenning River in West Beleriand, reaching the sea at the Haven of Eglarest. 142, 239, 259
   Nenuial 'Lake of Twilight', in Eriador, where the river Baranduin rose, and beside which the city of Annuminas was built. 361
   Nenya One of the Three Rings of the Elves, the Ring of Water, borne by Galadriel; also called the Ring of Adamant, 357, 370
   Nerdanel Called the Wise; daughter of Mahtan the smith, wife of Feanor. 69, 71, 75
   Nessa One of the Valier, the sister of Orome and spouse of Tulkas. 18, 22, 31
   Nevrast The region west of Dor-lomin, beyond Ered Lomin, where Turgon dwelt before his departure to Gondolin. The name, meaning 'Hither Shore', was originally that of all the northwestern coast of Middle-earth (the opposite being Haerast 'the Far Shore', the coast of Aman). 133-5, 141, 149-50, 156, 239, 240, 295, 302
   Nienna One of the Valier, numbered among the Aratar; Lady of pity and mourning, the sister of Mandos and Lorien; see especially 21-2. 18, 21-2, 25, 33, 70, 87, 113
   Nienor 'Mourning', the daughter of Hurin and Morwen and sister of Turin; spell-bound by Glaurung at Nargothrond and in ignorance of her past wedded Turin in Brethil in her name Niniel; cast herself into the Teiglin. 243, 260, 263-4, 267-79
   Nimbrethil Birch-woods in Arvernien in the south of Beleriand. Cf. Bilbo's song at Rivendell: 'He built a boat of timber felled in Nimbrethil to journey in …' (The Fellowship of the Ring II 1). 304
   Nimloth (1) The White Tree of Numenor, of which a fruit taken by Isildur before it was felled grew into the White Tree of Minas Ithil. Nimloth 'White Blossom' is the Sindarin form of Quenya Ninquelote, one of the names of Telperion. 62, 324, 331-2, 336-8, 342, 361-2
   Nimloth (2) Elf of Doriath who wedded Dior Thingol's Heir; mother of Elwing; slain in Menegroth in the attack by the sons of Feanor. 290-1
   Nimphelos The great pearl given by Thingol to the lord of the Dwarves of Belegost. 105
   Niniel 'Tear-maiden', the name that Turin, ignorant of their relationship, gave to his sister; see Nienor.
   Ninquelote 'White Blossom', a name of Telperion; see Nimloth (1). 33
   niphredil A white flower that bloomed in Doriath in starlight when Luthien was born. It grew also on Cerin Amroth in Lothlorien (The Fellowship of the Ring II 6, 8). 103
   Nirnaeth Arnoediad 'Tears Unnumbered' (also simply the Nirnaeth ), the name given to the ruinous fifth battle in the Wars of Beleriand. 166, 234-8, 242, 254, 257, 294, 297-8
   Nivrim That part of Doriath that lay on the west bank of Sirion. 145
   Noegyth Nibin 'Petty-dwarves' (see also under Dwarves). 250, 284
   Nogrod One of the two cities of the Dwarves in the Blue Mountains; translation into Sindarin of Dwarvish Tumunzahar. See Hollowbold. 104, 107, 132, 158, 161, 215, 231, 250, 285-8, 291
   Noldolante 'The Fall of the Noldor', a lament made by Maglor son of Feanor. 98
   Noldor The Deep Elves, the second host of the Eldar on the westward journey from Cuivienen, led by Finwe. The name (Quenya Noldo, Sindarin Golodh ) meant 'the Wise' (but wise in the sense of possessing knowledge, not in the sense of possessing sagacity, sound judgement). For the language of the Noldor see Quenya, Passim; see especially 35, 54, 63-8, 137, 356
   Nom, Nomin 'Wisdom' and 'the Wise', the names that the Men of Beor's following gave to Finrod and his people in their own tongue. 168
   North Downs In Eriador, where was built the Numenorean city of Fornost 360
   Nulukkizdin Dwarvish name of Nargothrond. 284
   Numenor (In full Quenya form Numenore, 321-2, 347.) 'Westernesse', 'Westland', the great island prepared by the Valar as a dwelling-place for the Edain after the ending of the First Age. Called also Anadune, Andor, Elenna, the Land of the Star, and after its downfall Akallabeth, Atalante, and Mar-nu-Falmar. 62, 177, 321-37, 341-7, 354, 358-63, 368, 375
   Numenoreans The Men of Numenor, called also Dunedain. 24, 321-35, 337-9, 342-7, 355, 359-65,367-70,372,376-7
   Nurtale Valinoreva 'The Hiding of Valinor'. 118
   Ohtar 'Warrior', esquire of Isildur, who brought the shards of Elendil's sword to Imladris. 367
   Oiolosse 'Ever-snow-white', the most common name among the Eldar for Taniquetil, rendered into Sindarin as Amon Uilos; but according to the Valaquenta it was the uttermost tower of Taniquetil.. 19, 32
   Oiomure A region of mists near to the Helcaraxe. 88
   Olorin A Maia, one of the Istari (Wizards); see Mithrandir, Gandalf, and cf. The Two Towers IV 5: 'Olorin I was in my youth in the West that is forgotten'. 25-6
   olvar An Elvish word retained in the speeches of Yavanna and Manwe in Chapter II, meaning 'growing things with roots in the earth', 43-4
   Olwe Leader together with his brother Elwe (Thingol) of the hosts of the Teleri on the westward journey from Cuivienen; lord of the Teleri of Alqualonde in Aman. 54-8, 60-1, 63-5, 97-100, 107, 130, 152
   Ondolinde 'Stone Song', the original Quenya name of Gondolin. 149
   Orcs Creatures of Morgoth. Passim; for their origin see 50, 106
   Orfalch Echor The great ravine through the Encircling Mountains by which Gondolin was approached. 296
   Ormal One of the Lamps of the Valar made by Aule, Ormal stood in the south of Middle-earth. 29-30
   Orocarni The Mountains of the East of Middle-earth (the name means "the Red Mountains'). 49
   Orodreth The second son of Finarfin; warden of the tower of Minas Tirith on Tol Sirion; King of Nargothrond after the death of Finrod his brother; father of Finduilas; slain in the Battle of Tumhalad. 64, 93, 142, 187-8, 206, 209, 213, 230, 257-61, 266
   Orodruin 'Mountain of Blazing Fire' in Mordor, in which Sauron forged the Ruling Ring; called also Amon Amarth 'Mount Doom'. 357, 363-6
   Orome A Vala, one of the Aratar; the great hunter, leader of the Elves from Cuivienen, spouse of Vana. The name means 'Horn-blowing' or 'Sound of Horns', cf. Valaroma; in The Lord of the Rings it appears in the Sindarin form Araw. See especially 22-3. 18, 22-3, 31. 37, 47, 49-51, 53-5, 59, 63, 65, 79-82, 85, 93, 106, 108, 114, 184, 209, 225
   Oromet A hill pear the haven of Andunie in the west of Numenor, on which was built the tower of Tar-Minastir. 332
   Orthanc 'Forked Height', the Numenorean tower in the Circle of Isengard. 361-2, 372
   Osgiliath 'Fortress of the Stars', the chief city of ancient Gondor, on either side of the river Anduin. 361-4, 368
   Osse A Maia, vassal of Ulmo, with whom he entered the waters of Arda; lover and instructor of the Teleri. 24, 36, 60-1, 64, 98, 141, 240, 321
   Ossiriand 'Land of Seven Rivers' (these being Gelion and its tributaries flowing down from the Blue Mountains), the land of the Green-elves. Cf. Treebeard's song in The Two Towers III 4: 'I wandered in Summer in the elm-woods of Ossiriand. Ah! the light and the music in the Summer by the Seven Rivers of Ossir!' See Lindon. 108, 110, 133, 144-8, 167, 170-1, 182, 184, 229, 239, 289-91, 354
   Ost-in-Edhil 'Fortress of the Eldar', the city of the Elves in Eregion. 354-6
   Outer Lands Middle-earth (also called the Hither Lands). 35, 36, 47, 88, 102, 115, 308
   Outer Sea See Ekkaia.
   Palantiri 'Those that watch from afar', the seven Seeing Stones brought by Elendil and his sons from Numenor; made by Feanor in Aman (see 69, and The Two Towers III 11). 342, 362
   Pelargir 'Garth of Royal Ships,' the Numenorean haven above the delta of Anduin. 329
   Pelori 'The fencing or defensive heights', called also the Mountains of Aman and the Mountains of Defence, raised by the Valar after the destruction of their dwelling on Almaren; ranging in a crescent from north to south, close to the eastern shores of Aman. 32, 34, 46, 59, 62, 80-1, 88, 115-7, 210
   People of Haleth See Haladin and Haleth.
   Periannath The Halflings (Hobbits). 316
   Petty-dwarves Translation of Noegyth Nibin. See also under Dwarves.
   Pharazon See Ar-Pharazon.
   Prophecy of the North The Doom of the Noldor, uttered by Mandos on the coast of Araman. 98
   Quendi Original Elvish name for Elves (of every kind, including the Avari), meaning 'Those that speak with voices'. 37-8, 48-53, 57, 61, 73, 76, 114, 121-2, 169
   Quenta Silmarillion 'The History of the Silmarils.' 355
   Quenya The ancient tongue, common to all Elves, in the form that it took in Valinor; brought to Middle-earth by the Noldorin exiles, but abandoned by them as a daily speech, especially after the edict of King Thingol against its use; see especially 133, 155. Not named as such in this book, but referred to as Eldarin, 21, 323, 347; High Eldarin, 322-3; High-elven, 266, 330; the tongue of Valinor, 133; the speech of the Elves of Valinor, 149; the tongue of the Noldor, 155, 159; the High Speech of the West, 155
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   Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names
   These notes have been compiled for those who take an interest in the Eldarin languages, and The Lord of the Rings is extensively drawn upon for illustration. They are necessarily very compressed, giving an air of certainty and finality that is not altogether justified; and they are very selective, this depending both on considerations of length and the limitations of the editor's knowledge. The headings are not arranged systematically by roots or in Quenya or Sindarin forms, but somewhat arbitrarily, the aim being to make the component elements of names as readily identifiable as possible.
   adan (plural Edain) in Adanedhel, Aradan, Dunedain. For its meaning and history see Atani in the Index.
   aelin 'lake, pool' in Aelin-uial; cf. lin (2).
   aglar 'glory, brilliance' in Dagor Aglareb, Aglarond. The form in Quenya, alkar, has transposition of the consonants: to Sindarin aglareb corresponds Alkarinque. The root is kal- 'shine', q.v.
   aina 'holy' in Ainur, Ainulindale.
   alda 'tree' (Quenya) in Aldaron, Aldudenie, Malinalda, corresponding to Sindarin galadh (seen in Caras Galadon and the Galadrim of Lothlorien).
   alqua 'swan' (Sindarin alph ) in Alqualonde; from a root alak- 'rushing' occurring also in Ancalagon.
   amarth 'doom' in Amon Amarth, Cabed Naeramarth, umarth, and in the Sindarin form of Turin's name 'Master of Doom', Turamarth. The Quenya form of the word appears in Turambar.
   amon 'hill', a Sindarin word occurring as the first element of many names; plural emyn in Emyn Beraid. 445
   anca 'jaws' in Ancalagon (for the second element in this name see alqua ).
   an(d) 'long' in Andram, Anduin; also in Anfalas ('Lang-strand') in Gondor, Cair Andros ('ship of long-foam') an island in Anduin, and Angerthas 'long rune-rows'.
   andune 'sunset, west' in Andunie, to which corresponds in Sindarin annun, cf. Annuminas, and Henneth Annun 'window of the sunset' in Ithilien. The ancient root of these words, ndu, meaning 'down, from on high', appears also in Quenya numen 'the way of the sunset, west' and in Sindarin dun 'west', cf. Dunedain, Adunaic adun in Adunakhor, Anadune was a loan from Eldarin speech.
   anga 'iron', Sindarin ang, in Angainor, Angband, Anghabar, Anglachel, Angrist, Angrod, Anguirel, Gurthang; angren 'of iron' in Angrenost, plural engrin inEred Engrin.
   anna 'gift' in Annatar, Melian, Yavanna; the same stem in Andor 'Land of Gift'.
   annon 'great door or gate', plural ennyn, in Annon-in-Gelydh; cf. Morannon the 'Black Gate' of Mordor and Sirannon the 'Gate-stream' of Moria.
   ar- 'beside, outside' (whence Quenya ar 'and', Sindarin a ), probably in Araman 'outside Aman'; cf. also (Nirnaeth )Arnoediad '(Tears) without reckoning'.
   ar(a)- 'high, noble, royal' appears in a great many names, as Aradan, Aredhel, Argonath, Arnor, etc.; extended stem arat- appearing in Aratar, and in arato 'champion, eminent man', e.g. Angrod from Angarato and Finrod from Findarato; also aran 'king' in Aranruth. Ereinion 'scion of kings' (name of Gil-galad) has the plural of aran; cf. Fornost Erain 'Norbury of the Kings' in Arnor. The prefix Ar- of the Adunaic names of the Kings of Numenor was derived from this.
   arien (the Maia of the Sun) is derived from a root as- seen also in Quenya are 'sunlight'.
   atar 'father' in Atanatari (see Atani in Index), Iluvatar.
   band 'prison, duress' in Angband; from original mbando, of which the Quenya form appears in Mandos (Sindarin Angband= QuenyaAngamando).
   bar 'dwelling' in Bar-en-Danwedh. The ancient word mbar (Quenya mar, Sindarin bar) meant the 'home' both of persons and of peoples, and thus appears in many place-names, as Brithombar, Dimbar (the first element of which means 'sad, gloomy'), Eldamar, Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar. Mardil, name of the first of the Ruling Stewards of Gondor, means 'devoted to the house' (i.e. of the Kings).
   barad 'tower' in Barad-dur, Barad Either Barad Nimras; the plural in Emyn Beraid.
   beleg 'mighty' in Beleg, Belegaer, Belegost, Laer Cu Beleg.
   brago 'sudden' in Dagor Bragollach.
   brethil probably means 'silver birch'; cf. Nimbrethil the birchwoods in Arvernien, and Fimbrethil, one of the Entwives.
   brith 'gravel' in Brithiach, Brithombar, Brithon.
   (For many names beginning with C see entries under K)
   calen (galen) the usual Sindarin word for 'green', in Ard-galen, Tol Galen, Calenardhon; also in Parth Galen ('Green Sward') beside Anduin and Pinnath Gelin ('Green Ridges') in Gondor. See kal-.
   cam (from kamba) 'hand', but specifically of the hand held cupped in the attitude of receiving or holding, in Camlost, Erchamion.
   carak- This root is seen in Quenya carca 'fang', of which the Sindarin form carch occurs in Carcharoth, and also in Carchost ('Fang Fort', one of the Towers of the Teeth at the entrance to Mordor). Cf. Caragdur, Carach Angren ('Iron Jaws', the rampart and dike guarding the entrance to Udun in Mordor), and Helcaraxe.
   caran 'red', Quenya carne, in Caranthir, Carnil, Orocarni; also in Caradhras, from caran-rass, the 'Red-horn' in the Misty Mountains, and Carnimirie 'red-jewelled', the rowan-tree in Treebeard's song. The translation of Carcharoth in the text as 'Red Maw' must depend on association with this word; see carak-.
   celeb 'silver' (Quenya telep, telpe, as in Telperion) in Celeborn, Celebrant, Celebros. Celebrimbor means 'silver-fist', from the adjective celebrin 'silver' (meaning not 'made of silver' but 'like silver, in hue or worth') and paur (Quenya quare) 'fist' often used to mean 'hand'; the Quenya form of the name was Telperinquar. Celebrindal has celebrin and tal, dal 'foot'.
   coron 'mound' in Corollaire (also called Coron Oiolaire, which latter word appears to mean 'Ever-summer', cf. Oiolosse); cf. Cerin Amroth, the great mound in Lothlorien.
   cu 'bow' in Cuthalion, Dor Cuarthol, Laer Cu Beleg.
   cuivie 'awakening' in Cuivienen (Sindarin Nen Echui ). Other derivatives of the same root are Dor Firn‑i‑Guinar; coire, the first beginning of Spring, Sindarin echuir, The Lord of the Rings Appendix D; and coimas 'life-bread', Quenya name of lembas.
   cul- 'golden-red' in Culurien.
   curu 'skill' in Curuftn(we), Curunir.
   dae 'shadow' in Dor Daedeloth, and perhaps in Daeron.
   dagor 'battle'; the root is ndak-, cf. Haudh-en-Ndengin. Another derivative is Dagnir (Dagnir Glaurunga 'Glaurung's Bane').
   del 'horror' in Delduwath; deloth 'abhorrence' in Dor Daedeloth.
   din 'silent' in Dor Dinen; cf. Rath Dinen, the Silent Street in Minas Tirith, and Amon Din, one of the beacon-hills of Gondor.
   dol 'head' in Lorindol; often applied to hills and mountains, as in Dol Guldur, Dolmed, Mindolluin (also Nardol, one of the beacon-hills of Gondor, and Fanuidhol, one of the Mountains of Moria).
   dor 'land' (i.e. dry land as opposed to sea) was derived from ndor; it occurs in many Sindarin names, as Doriath, Dorthonion, Eriador, Gondor, Mordor, etc. In Quenya the stem was blended and confused with a quite distinct word nore meaning 'people'; in origin Valinore was strictly 'the people of the Valar', but Valandor 'the land of the Valar', and similarly Numen(n)ore 'people of the West', but Numendor 'land of the West'. Quenya Endor 'Middle-earth' was from ened 'middle' and ndor; this in Sindarin became Ennor (cf. ennorath 'middle lands' in the chant A Elbereth Gilthoniel ).
   draug 'wolf' in Draugluin.
   du 'night, dimness' in Delduwath, Ephel Duath. Derived from earlier dome, whence Quenya lome; thus Sindarin dulin 'nightingale' corresponds to lomelinde.
   duin '(long) river' in Anduin, Baranduin, Esgalduin, Malduin, Taur-im-Duinath.
   dur 'dark' in Barad-dur, Caragdur, Dol Guldur; also in Durthang (a castle in Mordor).
   ear 'sea' (Quenya) in Earendil, Earrame, and many other names. The Sindarin word gaer (in Belegaer ) is apparently derived from the same original stem.
   echor in Echoriath 'Encircling Mountains' and Orfalch Echor; cf. Rammas Echor 'the great wall of the outer circle' about the Pelennor Fields at Minas Tirith.
   edhel 'elf' (Sindarin) in Adanedhel, Aredhel, Gloredhel, Ost-in-Edhil; also in Peredhil 'Half-elven'.
   eithel 'well' in Eithel Ivrin, Eithel Sirion, Barad Eithel; also in Mitheithel, the river Hoarwell in Eriador (named from its source). See kel-.
   el, elen 'star'. According to Elvish legend, ele was a primitive exclamation 'behold!' made by the Elves when they first saw the stars. From this origin derived the ancient words el and elen, meaning 'star', and the adjectives elda and elena, meaning 'of the stars'. These elements appear in a great many names. For the later use of the name Eldar see the Index. The Sindarin equivalent of Elda was Edhel (plural Edhil ), q.v.; but the strictly corresponding form was Eledh, which occurs in Eledhwen.
   er 'one, alone', in Amon Ereb (cf. Erebor, the Lonely Mountain), Erchamion, Eressea, Eru.
   ereg 'thorn, holly' in Eregion, Region.
   esgal 'screen, hiding' in Esgalduin.
   falas 'shore, line of surf' (Quenya falasse ) in Falas, Belfalas; also Anfalas in Gondor. Cf. Falathar, Falathrim. Another derivative from the root was Quenya falma '(crested) wave', whence Falmari, Mar-nu-Falmar.
   faroth is derived from a root meaning 'hunt, pursue'; in the Lay of Leithian the Taur-en-Faroth above Nargothrond are called 'the Hills of the Hunters'.
   faug- 'gape' in Anfauglir, Anfauglith, Dor-nu-Fauglith.
   fea 'spirit' in Feanor, Feanturi.
   fin- 'hair' in Finduilas, Fingon, Finrod, Glorftndel.
   formen 'north' (Quenya) in Formenos; Sindarin forn (also for, forod ) in Fornost.
   fuin 'gloom, darkness' (Quenya huine) in Fuinur, Taur-nu-Fuin.
   gaer 'sea' in Belegaer (and in Gaerys, Sindarin name of Osse). Said to derive from the stem gaya 'awe, dread', and to have been the name made for the vast and terrifying Great Sea when the Eldar first came to its shores.
   gaur 'werewolf (from a root ngwaw- 'howl') in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.
   gil 'star' in Dagor-nuin-Giliath, Osgiliath (giliath 'host of stars'); Gil-Estel, Gil-galad.
   girith 'shuddering' in Nen Girith; cf. also Girithron, name of the last month of the year in Sindarin (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D).
   glin 'gleam' (particularly applied to the eyes) in Maeglin.
   golodh is the Sindarin form of Quenya Noldo; see gul. Plural Golodhrim, and Gelydh (in Annon-in-Gelydh ).
   gond 'stone' in Gondolin, Gondor, Gonnhirrim, Argonath, seregon. The name of the hidden city of King Turgon was devised by him in Quenya as Ondolinde (Quenya ondo= Sindarin gond, and linde 'singing, song'); but it was known always in legend in the Sindarin form Gondolin, which was probably interpreted as gond-dolen 'Hidden Rock'.
   gor 'horror, dread' in Gorthaur, Gorthol; goroth of the same meaning, with reduplicated gor, in Gorgoroth, Ered Gorgoroth.
   groth (grod) 'delving, underground dwelling' in Menegroth, Nogrod (probably also in Nimrodel, 'lady of the white cave'). Nogrod was originally Novrod 'hollow delving' (hence the translation Hollowbold ), but was altered under the influence of naug 'dwarf'.
   gul 'sorcery' in Dol Guldur, Minas Morgul. This word was derived from the same ancient stem ngol- that appears in Noldor; cf. Quenya nole 'long study, lore, knowledge'. But the Sindarin word was darkened in sense by its frequent use in the compound morgul 'black arts'.
   gurth 'death' in Gurthang (see also Melkor in the Index).
   gwaith 'people' in Gwaith-i-Mirdain; cf. Enedwaith 'Middle-folk', name of the land between the Greyflood and the Isen.
   gwalh, wath 'shadow' in Delduwath, Ephel Duath; also in Gwathlo, the river Greyflood in Eriador. Related forms in Ered Wethrin, ThurIngwethil. (This Sindarin word referred to dim light, not to the shadows of objects cast by light: these were called morchaint 'dark shapes'.)
   hadhod in Hadhodrond (translation of Khazad-dum) was a rendering of Khazad into Sindarin sounds.
   haudh 'mound' in Haudh-en-Arwen, Haudh-en-Elleth, etc.
   heru 'lord' in Herumor, Herunumen; Sindarin hir in Gonnhirrim, Rohirrim, Barahir; hiril 'lady' in Hirilorn.
   him 'cool' in Himlad (and Himring? ).
   hin 'children' in Eruhini 'Children of Eru'; Narn i Hin Hurin.
   hith 'mist' in Hithaeglir, Hithlum (also in Nen Hithoel, a lake in Anduin). Hithlum is Sindarin in form, adapted from the Quenya name Hisilome given by the Noldorin exiles (Quenya hisie 'mist', cf. Hisime, the name of the eleventh month of the year. The Lord of the Rings Appendix D).
   hoth 'host, horde' (nearly always in a bad sense) in Tol-in-Gaurhoth; also in Loss(h)oth, the Snowmen of Forochel (The Lord of the Rings Appendix A [I, iii]) and Glamhoth 'din-horde', a name for Orcs.
   hyarmen 'south' (Quenya) in Hyarmentir; Sindarin har-, harn, harad.
   ia 'void, abyss' in Moria.
   iant 'bridge' in Iant Iaur.
   iath 'fence' in Doriath.
   iaur 'old' in Iant Iaur; cf. the Elvish name of Bombadil, Iarwain.
   ilm- This stem appears in Ilmen, Ilmare, and also in Ilmarin ('mansion of the high airs', the dwelling of Manwe and Varda upon Oiolosse).
   iluve 'the whole, the all' in Iluvatar.
   kal' (gal-) This root, meaning 'shine', appears in Calacirya, Calaquendi, Tar-Calion; galvorn, Gil-galad, Galadriel. The last two names have no connexion with Sindarin galadh tree', although in the case of Galadriel such a connexion was often made, and the name altered to Galadhriel. In the High-elven speech her name was Al(a)tariel, derived from alata 'radiance' (Sindarin galad ) and riel 'garlanded maiden' (from a root rig- 'twine, wreathe'): the whole meaning 'maiden crowned with a radiant garland', referring to her hair. calen (galen) 'green' is etymologically 'bright', and derives from this root; see also aglar.
   kano 'commander': this Quenya word is the origin of the second element in Fingon and Turgon.
   kel- 'go away', of water 'flow away, flow down', in Celon; from et-kele 'issue of water, spring' was derived, with transposition of the consonants, Quenya ehtele, Sindarin eithel.
   kemen 'earth' in Kementari; a Quenya word referring to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens.
   kheliek- 'ice' in Helcar, Helcaraxe (Quenya helka 'icy, ice-cold'). But in Helevorn the first element is Sindarin heledh 'glass', taken from Khuzdul kheled (cf. Kheled-zaram 'Mirrormere'); Helevorn means 'black glass' (cf. galvorn ).
   khil- 'follow' in Hildor, Hildorien, Eluchil.
   kir- 'cut, cleave' in Calacirya, Cirth, Angerthas, Cirith (Ninniach, Thoronath ). From the sense 'pass swiftly through' was derived Quenya cirya 'sharp-prowed ship' (cf. English cutter), and this meaning appears also in Cirdan, Tar-Ciryatan, and no doubt in the name of Isildur's son Ciryon.
   lad 'plain, valley' in Dagorlad, Himlad; imlad a narrow valley with steep sides, in Imladris (cf. also Imlad Morgul in the Ephel Duath).
   laure 'gold' (but of light and colour, not of the metal) in Laurelin; the Sindarin forms in Gloredhel, Glorfindel, Loeg Ningloron, Lorindol, Rathloriel.
   lhach 'leaping flame' in Dagor Bragollach, and probably in Anglachel (the sword made by Eol of meteoric iron).
   lin (1) 'pool, mere' in Linaewen (which contains aew [Quenya aiwe ] 'small bird'), Teiglin; cf. aelin.
   lin– (2) This root, meaning 'sing, make a musical sound', occurs in Ainulindale, Laurelin, Lindar, Lindon, Ered Lindon, lomelindi.
   lith 'ash' in Anfauglith, Dor-nu-Fauglith; also in Ered Lithui, the Ashen Mountains, forming the northern border of Mordor, and Lithlad 'Plain of Ashes' at the feet of Ered Lithui.
   lok- 'bend, loop' in Uruloki (Quenya [h ]loke 'snake, serpent', Sindarin Ihug ).
   lom 'echo' in Dor-lomin, Ered Lomin; related are Lammoth, Lanthir Lamath.
   lome 'dusk' in Lomion, lomelindi; see du.
   londe 'land-locked haven' in Alqualonde; the Sindarin form lond (lonn ) in Mithlond.
   los 'snow' in Oiolosse (Quenya oio 'ever' and losse 'snow, snow-white'); Sindarin loss in Amon Uilos and Aeglos.
   loth 'flower' in Lothlorien, Nimloth; Quenya lote in Ninquelote, Vingilote.
   luin 'blue' in Ered Luin, Helluin, Luinil, Mindolluin.
   maeg 'sharp, piercing' (Quenya maika) in Maeglin.
   mal- 'gold' in Malduin, Malinalda; also in mallorn, and in the Field of Cormallen, which means 'golden circle' and was named from the culumalda trees that grew there (see cul –).
   mān- 'good, blessed, unmarred' in Aman, Manwe; derivatives of Aman in Amandil, Araman, umanyar.
   mel- 'love' in Melian (from Melyanna 'dear gift'); this stem is seen also in the Sindarin word mellon 'friend' in the inscription on the West-gate of Moria.
   men 'way' in Numen, Hyarmen, Romen, Formen.
   menel 'the heavens' in Meneldil, Menelmacar, Meneltarma.
   mereth 'feast' in Mereth Aderthad; also in Merethrond, the Hall of Feasts in Minas Tirith.
   minas 'tower' in Annuminas, Minas Anor, Minas Tirith, etc. The same stem. occurs in other words referring to isolated, prominent, things, e.g. Mindolluin, Mindon; probably related is Quenya minya 'first' (cf. Tar-Minyatur, the name of Elros as first King of Numenor).
   mir 'jewel' (Quenya mire) in Elemmire, Gwaith-i-Mirdain, Miriel, Nauglamir, Tar-Atanamir.
   mith 'grey' in Mithlond, Mithrandir, Mithrim; also hi Mitheithel, the river Hoarwell in Eriador.
   mor 'dark' in Mordor, Morgoth, Moria, Moriquendi, Mormegil, Morwen, etc.
   moth 'dusk' in NanElmoth.
   nan(d) 'valley' in Nan Dungortheb, Nan Elmoth, Nan Tathren.
   nar 'fire' in Narsil, Narya; present also in the original forms of Aegnor (Aikanaro 'Sharp Flame' or 'Fell Fire') and Feanor (Feanaro 'Spirit of Fire'). The Sindarin form was naur, as in Sammath Naur, the Chambers of Fire in Orodruin. Derived from the same ancient root (a)nar was the name of the Sun, Quenya Anar (also in Anarion), Sindarin Anor (cf. Minas Anor, Anorien ).
   naug 'dwarf' in Naugrim; see also Nogrod in entry groth. Related is another Sindarin word for 'dwarf', nogoth, plural noegyth (Noegyth Nibin 'Petty-dwarves') and nogothrim.
   -(n)dil is a very frequent ending of personal names, Amandil, Earendil (shortened Earnil ), Elendil, Mardil, etc.; it implies 'devotion', 'disinterested love' (see Mardil in entry bar ).
   -{n)dur in names such as Earendur (shortened Earnur ) is similar in meaning to –(n)dil.
   neldor 'beech' in Neldoreth; but it seems that this was properly the name of Hirilorn, the great beech-tree with three trunks (nelde 'three' and orn ).
   nen 'water', used of lakes, pools, and lesser rivers, in Nen Girith, Nenning, Nenuial, Nenya; Cuivienen, Uinen; also in many names in The Lord of the Rings, as Nen Hithoel, Bruinen, Emyn Arnen, Nurnen. Nin 'wet' in Loeg Ningloron; also in Nindalf.
   nim 'white' (from earlier nimf, nimp ) in Nimbrethil, Nimloth, Nimphelos, niphredil (niphred 'pallor'), Barad Nimras, Ered Nimrais. The Quenya form was ninque; thus Ninquelote=Nimloth. Cf. also Taniquetil.
   orn 'tree' in Celeborn, Hirilorn; cf. Fangorn 'Treebeard' and mallorn, plural mellyrn, the trees of Lothlorien.
   orod 'mountain' in Orodruin, Thangorodrim; Orocarni, Oromet. Plural ered in Ered Engrin, Ered Lindon, etc.
   os(t) 'fortress' in Angrenost, Belegost, Formenos, Fornost, Mandos, Nargothrond (from Narog-ost-rond ), Os(t)giliaih, Ost-in-Edhil.
   palan (Quenya) 'far and wide' in Palantiri, Tar-Palantir.
   pel- 'go round, encircle' in Pelargir, Pelori, and in the Pelennor, the 'fenced land' of Minas Tirith; also in Ephel Brandir, Ephel Duath (ephel from et-pel 'outer fence').
   quen– (quet-) 'say, speak' in Quendi (Calaquendi, Laiquendi, Moriquendi ), Quenya, Valaquenta, Quenta Silmarillion. The Sindarin forms have p (or b ) for qu; e.g. pedo 'speak' in the inscription on the West-gate of Moria, corresponding to the Quenya stem quet; and Gandalf's words before the gate, lasto beth lammen 'listen to the words of my tongue', where beth 'word' corresponds to Quenya quetta.
   ram 'wall' (Quenya ramba) in Andram, Ramdal; also in Rammas Echor, the wall about the Pelennor Fields at Minas Tirith.
   ran- 'wander, stray' in Rana, the Moon, and in Mithrandir, Aerandir; also in the river Gilraen in Gondor.
   rant 'course' in the river-names Adurant (with adu 'double') and Celebrant ('Silverlode').
   ras 'horn' in Barad Nimras, also in Caradhras ('Redhorn') and Methedras ('Last Peak') in the Misty Mountains; plural rais in Ered Nimrais.
   rauko 'demon' in Valaraukar; Sindarin raug, rog in Balrog.
   ril 'brilliance' in Idril, Silmaril; also in Anduril (the sword of Aragorn) and in mithril (Moria-silver). Idril's name in Quenya form was Itarille (or Itarilde ), from a stem ita- 'sparkle'.
   rim 'great number, host' (Quenya rimbe ) was commonly used to form collective plurals, as Golodhrim, Mithrim (see the Index), Naugrim, Thangorodrim, etc.
   ring 'cold, chill' in Ringil, Ringwil, Himring; also in the river Ringlo in Gondor, and in Ringare, Quenya name of the last month of the year (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D).
   ris 'cleave' appears to have blended with the stem kris- of similar meaning (a derivative of the root kir- 'cleave, cut', q.v.); hence Angrist (also Orcrist 'Orc-cleaver', the sword of Thorin Oakenshield), Crissaegrim, Imladris.
   roch 'horse' (Quenya rokko ) in Rochallor, Rohan (from Rochand 'land of horses'), Rohirrim; also in Roheryn 'horse of the lady' (cf. heru ), Aragorn's horse, which was so called because given to him by Arwen (The Return of the King V 2).
   rom- A stem used of the sound of trumpets and horns which appears in Orome and Valaroma; cf. Bema, the name of this Vala in the language of Rohan as translated into Anglo-Saxon in The Lord of the Rings Appendix A (II): Anglo-Saxon bēme 'trumpet'.
   romen 'uprising, sunrise, east' (Quenya) in Romenna. The Sindarin words for 'east', rhun (in Talath Rhunen ) and amrun, were of the same origin.
   rond meant a vaulted or arched roof, or a large hall or chamber so roofed; so Nargothrond (see ost ), Hadhodrond, Aglarond. It could be applied to the heavens, hence the name Elrond 'star-dome'.
   ros 'foam, spindrift, spray' in Celebros, Elros, Rauros; also in Cair Andros, an island in the river Anduin.
   ruin 'red flame' (Quenya runya ) inOrodruin.
   ruth 'anger' in Aranruth.
   sarn '(small) stone' in Sarn Athrad (Sarn Ford on the Brandywine is a half-translation of this); also in Sarn Gebir ('stone-spikes': ceber, plural cebir 'stakes'), rapids in the river Anduin. A derivative is Serni, a river in Gondor.
   sereg 'blood' (Quenya serke ) in seregon.
   sil- (and variant thil- ) 'shine (with white or silver light)' in Belthil, Galathilion, Silpion, and in Quenya Isil, Sindarin Ithil, the Moon (whence Isildur, Narsil; Minas Ithil, Ithilien ). The Quenya word Silmarilli is said to derive from the name silima that Feanor gave to the substance from which they were made.
   sir 'river', from root sir- 'flow', in Ossiriand (the first element is from the stem of the numeral 'seven', Quenya otso, Sindarin odo ), Sirion; also in Sirannon (the 'Gate-stream' of Moria) and Sirith ('a flowing', as tirith 'watching' from tir ), a river in Gondor. With change of s to h in the middle of words it is present in Minhiriath 'between the rivers', the region between the Brandywine and the Greyflood; in Nanduhirion 'vale of dim streams', the Dimrill Dale (see nan [d ] and du ), and in Ethir Anduin, the outflow or delta of Anduin (from et-sir ).
   sul 'wind' in Amon Sul, Sulimo; cf. sulime, Quenya name of the third month of the year (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D).
   tal (dal) 'foot' in Celebrindal, and with the meaning 'end' in Ramdal.
   talath 'flat lands, plain' in Talath Dirnen, Talath Rhunen.
   tar- 'high' (Quenya tara 'lofty'), prefix of the Quenya names of the Numenorean Kings; also in Annatar. Feminine tari 'she that is high, Queen' in Elentari, Kementari. Cf. tarma 'pillar' in Meneltarma.
   tathar 'willow'; adjective tathren in Nan-tathren; Quenya tasare in Tasarinan, Nan-tasarion (see Nan-tathren in the Index).
   taur 'wood, forest' (Quenya taure ) in Tauron, Taur-im-Duinath, Taur-nu-Fuin.
   tel- 'finish, end, be last' in Teleri.
   thalion 'strong, dauntless' in Cuthalion, Thalion.
   thong 'oppression' in Thangorodrim, also in Durthang (a castle in Mordor). Quenya sanga meant 'press, throng', whence Sangahyando 'Throng-cleaver', name of a man in Gondor (The Lord of the Rings Appendix A [I, iv]).
   thar- 'athwart, across' in Sarn Athrad, Thargelion; also in Tharbad (from thara-pata 'crossway') where the ancient road from Arnor and Gondor crossed the Grey-flood.
   thaur 'abominable, abhorrent' in Sauron (fromThauron), Gorthaur.
   thin(d) 'grey' in Thingol; Quenya sinda in Sindar, Singollo (Sindacollo: collo 'cloak').
   thol 'helm' in Dor Cuarthol, Gorthol.
   thon 'pine-tree' in Dorthonion.
   thoron 'eagle' in Thorondor (Quenya Sorontar ), Cirith Thoronath. The Quenya form is perhaps present in the constellation-name Soronume.
   til 'point, horn' in Taniquetil, Tilion ('the Horned'); also in Celebdil 'Silvertine', one of the Mountains of Moria.
   tin – 'sparkle' (Quenya tinta 'cause to sparkle', tinwe 'spark') in Tintalle; also in tindome 'starry twilight' (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D), whence tindomerel 'daughter of the twilight', a poetic name for the nightingale (Sindarin Tinuviel ). It appears also in Sindarin ithildin 'starmoon', the substance of which the devices on the West-gate of Moria were made.
   tir 'watch, watch over' in Minas Tirith, palantiri, Tar-Palantir, Tirion.
   tol 'isle' (rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river) in Tol Eressea, Tol Galen, etc.
   turn 'valley' in Tumhalad, Tumladen; Quenya tumbo (cf. Treebeard's tumbalemorna 'lack deep valley'. The Two Towers III 4). Cf. Utumno, Sindarin Udun (Gandalf in Mordor named the Balrog 'Flame of Udun'), a name afterwards used of the deep dale in Moria between the Morannon and the Isenmouths.
   tur 'power, mastery' in Turambar, Turgon, Turin, Feanturi, Tar-'Minyatur.
   uial 'twilight' in Aelin-uial, Nenuial.
   ur- 'heat, be hot' in Uruloki; cf. Urime and Urui, Quenya and Sindarin names of the eighth month of the year (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D). Related is the Quenya word aure 'sunlight, day' (cf. Fingon's cry 'before the Nirnaeth Arnoediad), Sindarin aur, which in the form Or- is prefixed to the names of the days of the week.
   val – 'power' in Valar, Valacirca, Valaquenta, Valaraukar, Val(i)mar, Valinor. The original stem was bal-, preserved in Sindarin Balan, plural Belain, the Valar, and in Balrog.
   wen 'maiden' is a frequent ending, as in Earwen, Morwen.
   wing 'foam, spray' in Elwing, Vingilot (and only in these two names).
   yave 'fruit' (Quenya) in Yavanna; cf. Yavannie, Quenya name of the ninth month of the year, and yavie 'autumn' (The Lord of the Rings Appendix D).
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