sapun predstavlja alkalne soli estara visih masnih kiselina i polivalentnih alkohola (prvenstveno glicerola i glikola - tro i dvovalentnih alkohola)
Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, FranceThe most popular soapmaking process today is the cold process method, where fats such as olive oil react with lye. Soapmakers sometimes use the melt and pour process, where a premade soap base is melted and poured in individual molds. While some people think that this is not really soap-making, the Hand Crafted Soap Makers Guild does recognize this as a legitimate form of soap making or soap crafting. Some soapers also practice other processes, such as the historical hot process, and make special soaps such as clear soap (glycerin soap), which must be made through the melt and pour process.
Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that, usually, an excess of fat is sometimes used to consume the alkali (superfatting), and in that the glycerin is not removed leaving a naturally moisturising soap and not pure detergent. Superfatted soap, soap which contains excess fat, is more skin-friendly than industrial soap; though, if not properly formulated, it can leave users with a "greasy" feel to their skin. Often, emollients such as jojoba oil or shea butter are added 'at trace' (the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken), after most of the oils have saponified, so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap. Superfatting can also be accomplished through a process called superfat discount, where, instead of putting in extra fats, the soap maker puts in less lye.
Reacting fat with sodium hydroxide will produce a hard soap.
Reacting fat with potassium hydroxide will produce a soap that is either soft or liquid. Historically, the alkali used was potassium hydroxide made from the deliberate burning of vegetation such as bracken, or from wood ashes.
Handicraft made Marseille soapSoap is derived from either vegetable or animal fats. Sodium tallowate, a common ingredient in many soaps, is derived from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, and the product is typically softer. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap. Castile is also sometimes applied to soaps with a mix of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil.
An array of oils and butters are used in the process such as olive, coconut, palm, cocoa butter, hemp oil and shea butter to provide different qualities. For example, olive oil provides mildness in soap; coconut oil provides lots of lather; while coconut and palm oils provide hardness. Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an ebullient. Most common, though, is a combination of coconut, palm, and olive oils.
In both cold-process and hot-process soapmaking, heat may be required for saponification.
Cold-process soapmaking takes place at a temperature sufficiently above room temperature to ensure the liquification of the fat being used, and requires that the lye and fat be kept warm after mixing to ensure that the soap is completely saponified.
Unlike cold-processed soap, hot-processed soap can be used right away because lye and fat saponify more quickly at the higher temperatures used in hot-process soapmaking.
Hot-process was used when the purity of lye was unreliable, and can use natural lye solutions such as potash. The main benefit of hot processing is that the exact concentration of the lye solution does not need to be known to perform the process with adequate success.
Cold-process requires exact measurement of lye to fat using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product is mild and skin-friendly. Saponification charts can also be used in hot-process soapmaking, but are not as necessary as in cold-process.
In the hot-process method, lye and fat are boiled together at 80–100 °C until saponification occurs, which the soapmaker can determine by taste (the bright, distinctive taste of lye disappears once all the lye is saponified) or by eye (the experienced eye can tell when gel stage and full saponification have occurred).
After saponification has occurred, the soap is sometimes precipitated from the solution by adding salt, and the excess liquid drained off.
The hot, soft soap is then spooned into a mold.
Masti su zasiceni estri visih masnih kiselina i glicerola, dok su ulja estri nezasicenih visih masnih kiselina i glicerola
prema tome samim dodavanjem NaOH (zive sode ili masne sode) na povisenoj temperaturi (da bi svi reaktanti bili tecni) dolazi do reakcije saponifikacije a hladjenjem se dobija sapun.
NaOH je jaka baza, treba paziti sa rukovanjem. Umesto NAOH moze da se koristi i KOH gde se dobijaju meksi ili cak tecni produkti, ali opet treba paziti jer je KOH jos jaca baza
Ne preporucujem koriscenje domaceg sapuna u svakodnevnoj upotrebi, jer su potrebni tacni odnosi masti/ulja i baze kako ne bi bilo problema sa viskom bilo koje od ovih supstanci.
I to kuvanje od 3 dana
je jedna obicna glupost. Dovoljno je 1-2 sata
Po pravljenju sapuna potrebno je ukloniti sav visak glicerola, masti i vode. Ovo se izvodi kuvanjem tako pripremljenog sapuna dodavanjem soli pri cemu dolazi do uklanjanja vode i talozenja sapuna koji se potom prebacuje u kalup i hladi ili presuje (posto se dobijaju sitne grudvice)