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Tema: Serbia ~ The finest country in the Balkans  (Pročitano 30032 puta)
02. Jan 2007, 19:49:32
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History




After this initial blooming of the Serbian state, a period of stasis and retrogression followed. Marked by disintegration and crises it lasted until the end of 12th century. After a struggle for the throne with his brothers, Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjic dynasty, rose to power in 1170 and started renewing the Serbian state in the Raska region. Sometimes with the sponsorship of Byzantium, and sometimes opposing it, the veliki zupan (a title equivalent to the rank of prince) Stefan Nemanja expanded his state seizing territories east and south, and newly annexed the littoral and the Zeta region. Along with his governmental efforts, the veliki zupan dedicated much care to the construction of monasteries. His endowments include the Djurdjevi Stupovi Monastery and the Studenica Monastery in the Raska region, and the Hilandar Monastery on Mt. Athos.



Stefan Nemanja was succeeded by his middle son Stefan, whilst his first-born Vukan was given the rule of the Zeta region (present-day Montenegro). Stefan Nemanja's youngest son Rastko became a monk and took the name of Sava, turning all his efforts to spreading religiousness among his people. Since the Curia already had ambitions to spread its influence to the Balkans as well, Stefan used these propitious circumstances to obtain his crown from the Pope thus becoming the first Serbian king in 1217. In Byzantium, his brother Sava managed to secure the autocephalous status for the Serbian Church and became the first Serbian archbishop in 1219. Thus the Serbs acquired both forms of independence: temporal and religious.



The next generation of Serbian rulers - the sons of Stefan Prvovencani - Radoslav, Vladislav and Uros I, marked a period of stagnation of the state structure. All three kings were more or less dependent on some of the neighboring states - Byzantium, Bulgaria or Hungary. The ties with the Hungarians had a decisive role in the fact that Uros I was succeeded by his son Dragutin whose wife was a Hungarian princess. Later on, when Dragutin abdicated in favor of his younger brother Milutin, the Hungarian king Ladislaus IV gave him lands in northeastern Bosnia, the regions of Srem and Macva, and the city of Belgrade, whilst he managed to conquer and annex lands in northeastern Serbia. Thus, all these territories became part of the Serbian state for the first time.



Under the rule of Dragutin's younger brother - King Milutin, Serbia grew stronger in spite of the fact that occasionally it had to fight wars on three different fronts. King Milutin was an apt diplomat much inclined to the use of a customary medieval diplomatic expedients - dynastic marriages. He was married five times, with Hungarian, Bulgarian and Byzantine princesses. He is also famous for building churches, some of which are the brightest examples of Medieval Serbian architecture: the Gracanica Monastery in Kosovo, the Cathedral in Hilandar Monastery on Mt. Athos, the St. Archangel Church in Jerusalem etc. Because of his endowments, King Milutin has been proclaimed a saint, in spite of his tumultuous life. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Stefan, later dubbed Stefan Decanski. Spreading the kingdom to the east by winning the town of Nis and the surrounding counties, and to the south by acquiring territories on Macedonia, Stefan Decanski was worthy of his father and built the Visoki Decani Monastery in Metohija - the most monumental example of Serbian Medieval architecture - that earned him his byname.



Under the rule of Dragutin's younger brother - King Milutin, Serbia grew stronger in spite of the fact that occasionally it had to fight wars on three different fronts. King Milutin was an apt diplomat much inclined to the use of a customary medieval diplomatic expedients - dynastic marriages. He was married five times, with Hungarian, Bulgarian and Byzantine princesses. He is also famous for building churches, some of which are the brightest examples of Medieval Serbian architecture: the Gracanica Monastery in Kosovo, the Cathedral in Hilandar Monastery on Mt. Athos, the St. Archangel Church in Jerusalem etc. Because of his endowments, King Milutin has been proclaimed a saint, in spite of his tumultuous life. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Stefan, later dubbed Stefan Decanski. Spreading the kingdom to the east by winning the town of Nis and the surrounding counties, and to the south by acquiring territories on Macedonia, Stefan Decanski was worthy of his father and built the Visoki Decani Monastery in Metohija - the most monumental example of Serbian Medieval architecture - that earned him his byname.

Medieval Serbia that enjoyed a high political, economic and cultural reputation in Medieval Europe, reached its apex in mid-14th century, during the rule of Tzar Stefan Dusan. This is the period when the Dusanov Zakonik (Dushan's Code) the greatest juridical achievement of Medieval Serbia, unique among the European feudal states of the period. St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dushan's Code, frescoes and the architecture of the medieval monasteries adorning Serbian lands are eternal civilizational monuments of the Serbian people. Tzar Stefan Dusan doubled the size of his kingdom seizing territories to the south, southeast and east at the expense of Byzantium. He was succeeded by his son Uros called the Weak, a term that might also apply to the state of the kingdom slowly sliding into feudal anarchy. This is a period marked by the rise of a new threat: the Ottoman Turk sultanate gradually spreading from Asia to Europe and conquering Byzantium first, and then the other Balkan states.

« Poslednja izmena: 02. Jan 2007, 21:48:59 od vlado85 »
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Having defeated the Serbian army in two crucial battles: on the banks of the river Marica in 1371 - where the forces of noblemen from Macedonia were defeated, and on Kosovo Polje (Kosovo Plain) in 1389, where the vassal troops commanded by Prince Lazar - the strongest regional ruler in Serbia at the time - suffered a catastrophic defeat. The Battle of Kosovo defined the fate of Serbia, because after it no force capable of standing up to the Turks existed. This was an unstable period marked by the rule of Prince Lazar's son - despot Stefan Lazarevic - a true European-style knight a military leader and even poet, and his cousin Djuradj Brankovic, who moved the state capital north - to the newly built fortified town of Smederevo. The Turks continued their conquest until they finally seized the entire Serbian territory in 1459 when Smederevo fell into their hands. Serbia was ruled by the Ottoman Empire for almost five centuries. The Turks persecuted the Serbian aristocracy, determined to physically exterminate the social elite. Since the Ottoman Empire was an Islamic theocratic state, Christian Serbs lived as virtual bond servants - abused, humiliated and exploited. Consequently they gradually abandoned the developed and urban centers where mining, crafts and trade was practiced and withdrew to hostile mountains living on cattle breeding and modest farming.



European powers, and Austria in particular, fought many wars against Turkey, relying on the help of the Serbs that lived under Ottoman rule. During the Austrian-Turkish War (1593-1606) in 1594 the Serbs staged an uprising in Banat - the Pannonian part of Turkey, and the sultan retaliated by burning the remains of St. Sava - the most sacred thing for all Serbs honored even by Moslems of Serbian origin. Serbs created another center of resistance in Herzegovina but when peace was signed by Turkey and Austria they abandoned to Turkish vengeance. This sequence of events became usual in the centuries that followed.

During the Great War (1683-1690) between Turkey and the Holy Alliance - created with the sponsorship of the Pope and including Austria, Poland and Venice - these three powers incited the Serbs to rebel against the Turkish authorities, and soon uprisings and guerrilla spread throughout the western Balkans: from Montenegro and the Dalmatian coast to the Danube basin and Ancient Serbia (Macedonia, Raska, Kosovo and Metohija). However, when the Austrians started to pull out of Serbia, they invited the Serbian people to come north with them to the Austrian territories. Having to choose between Turkish vengeance and living in a Christian state, Serbs massively abandoned their homesteads and headed north lead by their patriarch Arsenije Carnojevic. Many areas in southern Balkans were de-populated in the process, and the Turks used the opportunity to Islamize Raska, Kosovo and Metohija and to a certain extent Macedonia. A process whose effects are still visible today started.



Another important episode in Serbian history took place in 1716-1718, when the Serbian ethnic territories ranging from Dalmatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina to Belgrade and the Danube basin newly became the battleground for a new Austria-Turkish war launched by Prince Eugene of Savoy. The Serbs sided once again with Austria. After a peace treaty was signed in Pozarevac, Turkey lost all its possessions in the Danube basin, as well as northern Serbia and northern Bosnia, parts of Dalmatia and the Peloponnesus.

The last Austrian-Turkish war was the so called Dubica War (1788-1791), when the Austrians newly urged the Christians in Bosnia to rebel. No wars were fought afterwards until the 20th century that marked the fall of both mighty empires.
« Poslednja izmena: 02. Jan 2007, 20:20:23 od vlado85 »
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Serbian resistance to Ottoman domination, latent for many decades surfaced at the beginning of 19th century with the First and Second Serbian Uprising in 1804 and 1815. The Turkish Empire was already faced with a deep internal crisis without any hope of recuperating. This had a particularly hard effect on the Christian nations living under its rule. The Serbs launched not only a national revolution but a social one as well and gradually Serbia started to catch up with the European states with the introduction of the bourgeois society values. Resulting from the uprisings and subsequent wars against the Ottoman Empire, the independent Principality of Serbia was formed and granted international recognition in 1878.



This period was marked by the alternation of two dynasties descending from Djordje Petrovic - Karadjordje, leader of the First Serbian Uprising and Milos Obrenovic, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising. Further development of Serbia was characterized by general progress in economy, culture and arts, primarily due to a wise state policy of sending young people to European capitals to get an education. They all brought back a new spirit and a new system of values. One of the external manifestations of the transformation that the former Turkish province was going through was the proclamation of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882.



In the second half of 19th century Serbia was integrated into the constellation of European states and the first political parties were founded thus giving new momentum to political life. The coup d'etat in 1903, bringing Karadjordje's grandson to the throne with the title of King Petar I opened the way for parliamentary democracy in Serbia. Having received a European education, this liberal king translated "On Freedom" by John Stewart Mile and gave his country a democratic constitution. It initiated a period of parliamentary government and political freedom interrupted by the outbreak of the liberation wars. The Balkan wars 1912 - 1913, terminated the Turkish domination in the Balkans. Turkey was pushed back across the channel, and national Balkan states were created in the territories it withdrew from.

The assassination of Austrian Crown Prince Franc Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, served as a pretext for the Austrian attack on Serbia that marked the beginning of World War I. The Serbian Army bravely defended its country and won several major victories, but it was finally overpowered by the joint forces of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, and had to withdraw from the national territory marching across the Albanian mountain ranges to the Adriatic Sea. Having recuperated on Corfu the Serbian Army returned to combat on the Thessalonike front together with other Entante forces comprising France, England, Russia, Italy and the United States. In world War I Serbia had 1.264.000 casualties - 28% of its population (4.529.000) which also represented 58% of its male population - a loss it never fully recuperated from. This enormous sacrifice was the contribution Serbia gave to the Allied victory and the remodeling of Europe and of the World after World War I.
« Poslednja izmena: 02. Jan 2007, 20:21:58 od vlado85 »
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With the end of World War I and the downfall of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the conditions were met for proclaiming the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians in December of 1918. The Yugoslav ideal had long been cultivated by the intellectual circles of the three nations that gave the name to the country, but the international constellation of political forces and interests did not permit its implementation until then. However, after the war, idealist intellectuals gave way to politicians and the most influential Croatian politicians opposed the new state right from the start.

The Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS) headed by Stjepan Radic, and then by Vlatko Macek slowly grew to become a massive party endorsing Croatian national interests. According to its leaders the Yugoslav state did not provide a satisfactory solution to the Croatian national question. They chose to conduct their political battle by systematically obstructing state institutions and making political coalitions to undermine the state unity, thus extorting certain concessions. Each political or economic issue was used as a pretext for raising the so-called "unsettled Croatian question".

Trying to match this challenge and prevent any further weakening of the country, King Aleksandar I banned national political parties in 1929, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia. He hoped to curb separatist tendencies and mitigate nationalist passions. However the balance of power changed in international relations: in Italy and Germany Fascists and Nazis rose to power, and Stalin became the absolute ruler in the Soviet Union. None of these three states favored the policy pursued by Aleksandar I. In fact the first two wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, and the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy. Yugoslavia was an obstacle for these plans and King Aleksandar I was the pillar of the Yugoslav policy.

During an official visit to France in 1934, the king was assassinated in Marseilles by a member of VMRO - an extreme nationalist organization in Bulgaria that had plans to annex territories along the eastern and southern Yugoslav border - with the cooperation of the Ustashi - a Croatian fascist separatist organization. The international political scene in the late 30's was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I is was loosing its strongholds and its sponsors were loosing their strength. Supported and pressured by Fascist Italy and nazi Germany, Croatian leader Vlatko Macek and his party managed to extort the creation of the Croatian banovina (administrative province) in 1939. The agreement specified that Croatia were to remain part of Yugoslavia, but it was hurriedly building an independent political identity in international relations.


Yugoslav King Peter II. Karadjordjevic in Ljubljana - Slovenia, 1940 (left)
« Poslednja izmena: 02. Jan 2007, 20:27:56 od vlado85 »
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At the beginning of the 40's, Yugoslavia found itself surrounded by hostile countries. Except for Greece, all other neighboring countries had signed agreements with either Germany or Italy. Hitler was strongly pressuring Yugoslavia to join the Axis powers. The government was even prepared to reach a compromise with him, but the spirit in the country was completely different. Public demonstrations against Nazism prompted a brutal reaction. Luftwaffe bombed Belgrade and other major cities and in April 1941, the Axis powers occupied Yugoslavia and disintegrated it. The western parts of the country together with Bosnia and Herzegovina were turned into a Nazi puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) and ruled by the Ustashe. Serbia was occupied by German troops, but the northern territories were annexed by Hungary, and eastern and southern territories to Bulgaria. Kosovo and Metohija were mostly annexed by Albania which was under the sponsorship of fascist Italy. Montenegro also lost territories to Albania and was then occupied by Italian troops. Slovenia was divided between Germany and Italy that also seized the islands in the Adriatic.

Belgrade, April 6, 1941 – Debris of Belgrade after German air-raid Following the Nazi example, the Independent State of Croatia established extermination camps and perpetrated an atrocious genocide killing over 750.000 Serbs, Jews and Gypsies. This holocaust set the historical and political backdrop for the civil war that broke out fifty years later in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and that accompanied the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991-1992.




The ruthless attitude of the German occupation forces and the genocidal policy of the Croatian Ustasha regime generated a strong Serbian Resistance. The Serbs stood up against the Croatian genocidal government and the Nazi disintegration of Yugoslavia. Many joined the Partisan forces (National Liberation Army headed by Josib Broz Tito) in the liberation war and thus helped the Allied victory. By the end of 1944, with the help of the Red Army the Partisans liberated Serbia and by May 1945 the remaining Yugoslav territories, meeting up with the Allied forces in Hungary, Austria and Italy. Serbia and Yugoslavia were among the countries that had the greatest losses in the war: 1.700.000 (10.8% of the population) people were killed and national damages were estimated at 9.1 billion dollars according to the prices of that period.
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While the war was still raging, in 1943, a revolutionary change of the social and state system was proclaimed with the abolition of monarchy in favor of the republic. Josip Broz Tito became the first president of the new - socialist - Yugoslavia. Once a predominantly agricultural country Yugoslavia was transformed into a mid-range industrial country, and acquired an international political reputation by supporting the de-colonization process and by assuming a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement. Socialist Yugoslavia was established as a federal state comprising six republics: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro and two autonomous regions - Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The two autonomous regions were at the same time integral part of Serbia. Because of such an administrative division and due to historical reasons, the Serbs - the most numerous of the Yugoslav peoples - lived in all six republics and both autonomous regions. The trend to secure the power of the republics at the expense of the federal authorities became particularly intense after the adoption of the 1974 Constitution that encouraged the expansion of Croatian, Slovenian, Moslem and Albanian nationalism and secessionism.
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Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina forcibly seceded from Yugoslavia, whilst Macedonia did so peacefully. The break-up of Yugoslavia was endorsed by the international powers that recognized the right of self-determination to all nations except the Serbs which generally wanted to continue living in Yugoslavia. The secessionist republics were quickly granted recognition by the international community in clear breach of the principle of inviolability of international borders of sovereign countries and without fulfilling the criteria that a given state has to meet to be recognized internationally. Serbia and Montenegro opted to stay on in the federation and at the combined session of the parliaments of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro held on April 27 1992 in Belgrade, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was passed thus reaffirming the continuity of the state first founded on December 1st 1918.

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NOVI SAD

Novi Sad Novi Sad, the capital of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina lies on the Danube. Some of its parts date back to the 18th and 19th centuries and boast several well-preserved old churches and other public buildings. The city also boasts various interesting museums and art galleries. However, its undoubtedly most important monumental complex is the Petrovaradin Fortress on the right bank of the Danube. The first records about a fortress at its present site date back to the Roman times. Records show that is has been worked on the 13th century, while it obtained its present appearance in the 18th century largely.



BELGRADE

Belgrade Although Belgrade, is a very old city, known as Singidunum in the Roman times, it hasn't got many monuments from the past. It has been the target of many invaders throughout its history, so that was destroyed and rebuilt many times. There are almost no structures dating back to the old Roman times or medieval monuments. There are some monuments dating back to the times under Turkish rule. The best preserved of the latter is Kalemegdan, the old core of the Belgrade fortress. Apart from some Roman foundations and walls dating back to Despot Stefan's period (early 15th century), almost all its other fortifications were built in the 18th century by the Austrians. The complex system of extensive heavy ramparts, towers, bridges, turrets, moats and passages encompasses a number of fine fortress gateways, a clock tower, an old Roman well, and the Ruzica Church in the upper part; and a baroque gateway and the medieval Nebojsa Tower in the lower part. The fortress has been turned into a city park offering a wide variety of monuments from more recent times. Particularly attractive is a sculpture by Ivan Mestrovic - Pobednik (The Victor). The Military Museum in Kalemegdan, has a large collection of weapons and documents illustrating the history of Belgrade and Yugoslavia from the earliest times to date.



Belgrade Landmarks in the vicinity od Kalemegdan are the Cathedral Church (Saborna crkva), from the first half of the l9th century, the Princess Ljubica mansion (Konak kneginje Ljubice) - the court of renewed Serbia's first Prince - built in 1831, the Bajrakli Mosque, from the 17th century, and the building of Serbia's first school of higher learning, which now houses the Dositej Obradovic and Vuk Karadzic Museum, dedicated to the two founders of modern Serbian culture. Noteworthy among Belgrade's museums is the National Museum, with its rich prehistoric and classical collections, medieval section and art gallery , the Ethnographic Museum, the Gallery of Frescoes and the Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church.



NIS

Nis The ancient Roman town of Naissus, present-day Nis, was an important frontier fortress of the Roman Empire. It was here that the Emperor Constantine was born. A superb bronze head of the Emperor, discovered in Nis, is now in the National Museum in Belgrade. The remains of a Roman summer resort, Mediana, with the foundations of villas, mosaics and marble figures, have been unearthed in the vicinity of Nis. A 6th century Byzantine tomb, discovered in the city, includes well-preserved frescoes with zoomorphic and floral motifs.



SMEDEREVO

Smederevo Smederevo, a fortress on the Danube downstream from Belgrade, was built between 1428 and 1430 during the reign of Despot Djuradj Brankovic, the last of medieval Serbia's rulers. The fortress encircled by crenelated walls and towers, was for a long time the last bastion against the Turkish assault. The main tower is well preserved and an inscription on it mentions Despot Djuradj and the date of its construction. Smederevo fortress suffered severe damage to its towers and walls during World War II, when a big ammunition depot exploded within its walls in 1941, and from bombing in 1944.



VISOKI DECANI

Visoki Decani Decani is 17 km from Pec on the road to Prizren. This church is the largest construction of medieval Serbia and it was built from 1328 to 1355, its frescoes being completed in 1350. Decani's patrons were King Stefan Uros III (1321-1331), remembered as Stefan Decanski because of this church, and his son King Dusan (1331-1355).



DJURDJEVI STUBOVI

Djurdjevi stubovi Djurdjevi Stubovi, another endowment of Stefan Nemanja, was built thirty years before Studenica (around 1176). Today it is only a ruin, topping a hill four kilometres from the Church of St. Peter in Novi Pazar. The remains of the frescoes on the few existing portions of the church indicate that the paintings once embellishing its walls were the work of a master's hand. A monumental fresco of St. George on horseback, still discernible above the ruins of the main entrance to the church, is striking even today. The name of the church is a reminder of its having been dedicated to St. George, and of the two bell-towers (Serbian: stubovi) which once stood in front of it. In order to save the monastery from complete dilapidation, comprehensive restoration has been under way in recent years

Near the ruins of the church, there is a small chapel, built towards the end of the 13th century by King Dragutin (1276-1315) and intended to be his burial place. In the vaults, the frescoes include a number of Serbian assemblies symbolically represented and portraits of some of the first Nemanjics.



GAMZIGRAD

Gamzigrad South of the Danube, near Zajecar, are the ruins of the late-Roman fortress Gamzigrad (3rd and 4th century). Archeological diggings in the fortress have unearthed the remains of a palace with exceptionally fine mosaics, public baths and impressive city gates.



GOLUBAC

Golubac Golubac, probably built in the 14th century, guards the entrance to the Iron Gate gorge from high cliffs overlooking the Danube. It was held, in turn, by Prince Lazar, Despot Stefan and Despot Djuradj. The fortress has seven tall towers. Despite the many times it has been the scene of battles, Golubac is still comparatively well-preserved and represents one of the finest medieval fortresses in the country.



GORNJAK

Gornjak The church of the Gornjak Monastery was also built during Prince Lazar's reign. Situated in one of the most beautiful gorges of Serbia, in the Mlava River valley, the church has undergone many alterations over the centuries. Replastered with mortar, it has lost its original red-and white colour.



GRACANICA

Gracanica The Monastery Gracanica is 13 km south of Pristina, in Kosovo polje (plain). The fine arrangement of architectural masses, their step-like narrowing as they rise, the red and yellow stone used - combine to produce a very harmonious construction, regarded as the most beautiful structure in the early Serbian architecture.

The frescoes at Gracanica, perfectly preserved, belong to the narrative, or Paleologian style, characteristic of the Byzantine painting in the first half of the 14th century.



GRADAC

Gradac The Monastery of Gradac, built in the second half of the 13th century, is an endowment of Helen of Anjou, the wife of King Uros I. The church is predominantly in the style of the autochthonous Raska school, though with certain Gothic elements. Few frescoes have survived, but those that have are similar in style to those of the nearby Monastery of Sopocani.



KALENIC

kalenic Kalenic, with its graceful architecture and very lovely murals paintings, ranks among the finest monuments not only of the Morava style, but of Serbian art in general. Its patron was Lord Bogdan, a high official at the court of Despot Stefan. The monastery church was built between 1407 and 1418.

Its exterior is very picturesque with its decorative arrangement of white marble blocks and red bricks. Kalenic is also famous for its low-relief ornamentations above the doors and windows which include birds, gryphons and lions. Kalenic frescoes, delicate and harmonious in their colouring, are highly reminiscent of their contemporaries in Russian painting, especially the work of Andrei Rublev.



KRUSEDOL AND HOPOVO

Krusedol About a dozen old monasteries, built mostly in the 16th century, are situated on the Fruska Gora, a range of low mountains extending across northern Srem along of Danube. These monasteries are interesting because of their architecture, which is often a blend in style of the Byzantine and Baroque. In some of them, despite the large scale devastations of the World War II, frescoes and fine high iconostases can still to be found. The best known among the Fruska Gora monasteries are Krusedol and Hopovo.



LAZARICA

Lazarica Lazarica, an endowment of Prince Lazar, has survived to the present in Krusevac, his capital. Built about 1375, it has undergone considerable changes over the centuries, and was last restored early in the 20th century. As one of the earliest structures of the Morava school, it served as a model for many later churches. The church has a trefoil ground-plain. A certain delicacy is especially accentuated, both in the actual construction and by the small ornamental columns. The exterior of the church makes a vivid ampact with its red-and-white facades.



LEPENSKI VIR

Lepenski vir Lepenski vir, a unique prehistoric discovery, was brought to light about twenty years ago. The most important finds in the well laid-out settlement are a number of monumental stone sculptures made some six to seven thousand years ago. Nothing comparable has ever been unearthed in relation to such early prehistoric periods in the Balkans and the Danube basin. Particulary valuable to the study of the history of culture and art in the prehistoric Europe are the worked round boulders and marked slabs also found there.



LJUBOSTINJA

Ljubostinja Ljubostinja, an endowment of Prince Lazar's widow, Princess Milica, was built at the beginning of the 15th century. The architect was Rade Borovic, the famous Rade the Architect (Neimar) extolled in folk poetry, who left his name carved in the threshold of the church's interior portal. Another signature left in Ljubostinja is that of the painter Makarije. Very few frescoes have survived in the church.



MAGLIC

Maglic The medieval fortress of Maglic is located 16 km south of Kraljevo in the Ibar gorge. Its ramparts and towers are very well preserved and impressive even today. Maglic is one of the finest monuments of the medieval Serbian military architecture. It was a stronghold intended for the defense of the monasteries of Zica and Studenica. Early in the 14th century, Maglic was the residence of a Archbishop Danilo, an important figure in Serbian history and well-known biographer of the early Serbian rulers. Of the many structures that once stood in the fortress, only the ruins of Danilo's palace and remains of a church can be seen today.



MANASIJA

Manasija Manasija (Resava) was built early in the 15th century. Its founder was Despot Stefan, the son of Prince Lazar. In the Middle Ages, the monastery was known as Resava.In contrast to all other churches of the Morava style, marble was exclusively used in its construction.

Built at a crucial moment in the history of the medieval Serbian state, Manasija was transformed into a by stronghold, encircled with massive walls, fortified with eleven defensive towers. The fortifications are still well preserved.

Besides the monastery church, parts of the old refectory and library have also survived at Manasija. The library-housed manuscript workshop where the many books required by the Church were copied. The "Resava" script was highly valued and for a long time served as the model for subsequent scribes.



MEDIANA

Mediana The ancient Roman town Nais, present-day Nis, was an important frontier fortress of the Roman Empire. It was there that the Emperor Constantine was born. A superb bronze head of the Emperor, discovered in Nis, is now in the National Museum in Belgrade. The remains of the Roman summer resort Mediana, with the foundations of villas, mosaics and marble figures, have been unearthed in the vicinity of Nis. A 6th century Byzantine tomb, discovered in the city, includes well-preserved frescoes with zoomorphic and floral motifs.



NAUPARA

Naupara Naupara is architecturally very similar to Lazarica and built only a little earlier. It was yet another Prince Lazar's endowment. The church was extensively restored in the last century. Two very decoratively conceived rosettes on the western facade are well worth seeing.



NOVI PAZAR

Novi Pazar The town of Novi Pazar, at one time an important Turkish center, is in the midst of a modern transformation of its appearance. However, a Turkish fortress and a number of old houses, built in the Balkan-Turkish style, can still be seen. The most notable Oriental structure is the Alem Altum Mosque, with fine low domes and a minaret, built in the 16th century.



PEC

Pec Two kilometers from Pec, at the entrance to the Rugovo gorge, stands the Patriarchate of Pec. The monastery church is really a complex of four churches built side by side and three of them are now integrated into a single structure. The oldest, the Church of the Holy Apostles, was built in the mid- 13th century by Serbia's second archbishop, Arsenije. As soon as the construction was completed, Arsenije ordered the seat of the archbishopric to be transferred there from Zica. Early in the 14th century, with about 10 years between the construction of each, new churches were built on either side of the one already existing - the Church of St. Demetrius to the north, and the Church of the Virgin with the small Church of St. Nicholas to the south. Finally, a narthex was built on the western side joining together all three of the larger churches.



The frescoes in these churches belong to various periods. The oldest, in the sub-dome of the Church of the Holy Apostles, date fback to the time of its construction, the first half of the 13th century. In forceful expression, general concept and size, they belong to the 13th century monumental painting with its clearly defined features (Studenica, Mileseva, Sopocani). In the dome, the apostles, angels and the Assumption of the Virgin are very impressive. The paintings in the front of the church are from the 14th century, and closely related to the frescoes in the Church of St. Clemence in Ohrid. A small portion of the frescoes in this part of the church belong to the 17th century.



The throne of the Patriarch Most of the frescoes in the Church of St. Demetrius were painted by the master painter Jovan, who left his signature, in Greek, in the altar area where it can still be seen. These works differ considerably from those of the 13th century and those of the Milutin period. Particularly characteristic is the artist's evident devotion to detail. The Handmaid with the Jug, a detail in The Birth of the Virgin of the altar apse, has become well-known in the art world for the figure's charm and its classical beauty.

The monastery treasury housed in the Church of St. Demetrius, includes a number of icons, volumes in manuscript and gold and silver items. The icons were made in the Pec workshop, which was particularly active in the second half of the 16th century.

PRIZREN

Prizren The old town core of Prizren has survived and is now being carefully preserved. At one time, Prizren was the capital of the early Serbian state, and what remains of the walls of the fortress on the hill above the town dates back to those medieval times. However, the most notable monument in the town is undoubtedly the former Cathedral Church of Lady Ljeviska, built in 1307 on the foundations of a destroyed Byzantine basilica. The frescoes in the church were painted by Astrapa and Nikola, who also appear to have been tits architects. A long text on the ceiling of the open exo-narthex represents, in fact, notes about their work. Although only a few of the frescoes still remain, they are cherished as treasures of the early Serbian art. Their outstanding feature is bold, lovely coloring in strong, though well complemented greens, reds, yellows and blues.

Sinan-pasha's Mosque, with its very tall and slender minaret, is the most beautiful among the 20 or so mosques in Prizren. It was built in 1615.

Also belonging to the Turkish period is a well-preserved Turkish bath, now housing an art gallery, and a stone bridge across the Bistrica River.



RAVANICA

Ravanica Ravanica, built around 1380. was an endowment of Prince Lazar. Originally, the church was surrounded by fortifications, only the ruins of which remain today. The church, built of stone and brick, has five domes. Its windows and all the arches along its facades are decorated with low reliefs of sculptured geometric plait-work filled in with zoomorphic motifs. The spacious narthex in front of the church was built in the 18th century.

The frescoes of Ravanica, painted by the maestro Konstantin, include a very beautiful Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, with the city and the multitude depicted with special charm. There are also portraits of Prince Lazar, his wife Milica and his sons Stefan and Vuk.



SOPOCANI

Sopocani Sopocani, the medieval Serbia’s most brilliant monument to its arts, stands tucked away among the picturesque hills 16 km from Novi Pazar.

The monastery was built arround 1265 by King Uros I, son of King Stefan the First Crowned. Like the majority of Serbian monasteries, it too was to serve as its founder's burial place. The marble sarcophagus above Uros‘s grave, in the southern part of the church, has survived to the present.

The frescoes of Sopocani have won recognition long ago, both at home and abroad as the greatest accomplishment of medieval Serbian painting. Many prominent art historians have described them as the best works in the Byzantine style.



SREMSKA MITROVICA

Sremska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica, a town standing on the site of Sirmium, the capital of the Roman Empire at one time, lies south of the Fruska Gora, on the bank of the Sava, the biggest tributary to the Danube in Yugoslavia. Large scale excavations have been undertaken here in order to unearth the remains of its former splendour.



SREMSKI KARLOVCI

Sremski Karlovci Downstream from Novi Sad, on the Danube, stands Sremski Karlovci, a museum-city of the 18th and 19th century Serbian culture with a considerable number of architectural monuments, archives and art collections.



STUDENICA

Studenica The Studenica Monastery lies at the end of a 12-kilometre road which begins in the small town of Usce and winds its way through the Ibar gorge. It is beautifully set on the wooded slopes of Mount Radocelo.

Throughout the history of medieval Serbia, Studenica was the most prominent and the most revered monastery. It served as a residence for Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjic Dynasty, and for his son Sava, the first Serbian archbishop.

The monastery now comprises three churches: the Church of the Virgin, St. Nicholas and King’s Church.



ZICA

Zica Zica Monastery, an endowment of King Stefan the First Crowned built between 1208 and 1220, lies in a plain near Kraljevo, at the entrance to the Ibar gorge. Zica was the first seat of the autonomous Serbian Archbishops and it was there that almost all medieval Serbian rulers were crowned.



Archictecturally, Zica belongs to the Raska school, characterized by the Romanesque style of the Littoral adapted to the needs of the Ortodox religious service. However, more in keeping with the tradition of the Mount Athos monasteries, Zica was originally painted red.



Zica Only a few of the old frescoes dating back to the 13th century still remain in this church. These frescoes can be seen mainly in the lateral choir recesses. The rest of the wall paintings are from the early 14th century. The fine frescoes in the south chapel, dedicated to St. Stefan, belong to this period.
« Poslednja izmena: 02. Jan 2007, 20:47:36 od vlado85 »
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Until the time of the Slovene settlement, on several occasions the territory of present day Serbia represented the center of the civilized world. Often, it was the cradle of ideas and at times it had a significant influence on the cultural, economic and political history of Europe.

Danubius, Lepenski virDuring IX-VIII millennium before our age the local population established a unique and long lasting culture in the Djerdap area. The period is named for the location of its peak, THE LEPENSKI VIR CULTURE. In this location two great cultural heritages were created: sacral architecture with monumental sculptures, which expressed a special vision of the world and the mastery of domestication of plants and animals, founding the new economy based on food production.



A millennium later, between 4500 and 3500 years before our age a large settlement of Danubean agriculturists developed the area of today's Belgrade at the sight of Vinca, a metropolis of one of the most glittering cultures of the European prehistory. The inhabitants of prehistoric Vinca and their fellow tribesman in Banat, Pomoravlje and Kosovo and Metohija had established a very specific culture during the earlier stone age called VINCAN CULTURE Vincawhich dominated all of middle and southeastern Europe. Vinca and some other Neolite settlements in the vicinity of Vrsac (Potporanj), Kragujevac (Grivac, Divostin), Kosovska Mitrovica (Valac) and Pristina (Predionica) became big religious centers and focal points for art and had a crucial influence on the painting culture of all Neolite settlements of middle and southeastern Europe. Hundreds of thousands of clay figures and ritual vases found in the mentioned settlements reveal not only the extraordinary imagination and artistic ability of their creators but also the development of myth and the rapid expansion of magic religious practices within the Vincan culture. This special sacral world lived in the Balkan peninsula up to the time of the spreading of Christianity. Part of it is most probably embedded in the foundation of ancient European mythology i.e. old Greek myths about Demetra, Dionis and the divine blacksmith, Hefest.



VATIN CULTURE, created after the fall of Vincan Culture, was founded 1600 years before our age and is characterized by stone and bone carvings and the formation and decoration of clay dishes. The specific decorative style expressed on the items of the Vatin culture is found on the items discovered in the Kings Circle of tombs in Mikena originating from the middle XVI century before our age.

GamzigradThe territory of present day Serbia was under the ROMAN EMPIRE for six centuries. During that time the towns of Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminacium, Nais, Ulpiana developed and bridges and roads were built as well as a few imperial palaces and summer houses.

By the end of the III and in the first decades of the IV century at the time of Dioklecian, Galerian, Licinis and the Great Constantine's reign the magnificent architectonic ensembles were built- Romuliana (Gamzigrad near Zajecar), Mediana (Brzi Brod near Nis) and Justiniana Prima (Cesarean City near Lebane).



Construction activity began in all larger cities and especially in Sirmium (Sremskoj Mitrovici) which at the time had a large forum , an imperial palace with a hippodrome, luxurious baths, many palaces, a theater and an amphitheater. Many frescoes and sculptures have been discovered in this area.

Handicraft was significantly developed during the reign of Constantine the Great. The imperial crafts of Nais (Nis) included silver dishes which were used as gifts for army commanders.

At the end of the VI and in the first decade of the VII century there was a fall in creativity. The increased pressure of the barbarians on the inhabitants of Panonian, Dakijan and Dardanian forced them to withdraw towards the southern part of the Balkan peninsula. The Danubian region was depopulated and during the second decade of the VII century, during the reign of the Czar Iraklije, all the territories of modern Serbia were conquered by the Avars and Slovenes.

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In the medium Balkan space predominantly inhabited by Serbs, church construction and engineering started to develop under the influence of the Byzantine establishments and their founders. The oldest pieces of Serbian art and architecture show that the Serbs accepted Byzantine art. During the X century many three nave basilicas whose ruins and traces are hidden by the church buildings of a later stage.

SCHOOL OF RASKA


At the time of the Byzantine crisis, due to the Crusaders invasion of Constantinopolis in 1204, the Serbian state was strengthened and at the end of the 12th century the Raska style developed in the fine arts.

StudenicaStefan Nemanja, the originator of the most prominent imperial dynasty, supported the development of architecture and painting. After founding the independent Serbian medieval state, Nemanja provided the conditions for the free development of the arts. The Great parish and head of the tribal state, with his foundations, marked the beginning of construction activity in Serbia .

The well preserved monuments of Serbian architecture from 12th to 14th century are testaments to this specific combination of Byzantine and Romanesque art. In the architecture, the western style of construction is predominant since the Nemanjics brought constructors and stonemasons from the coast. The plastic in these constructions is Romanian.



Before he was entitled Great parish, between 1162 and 1168 Nemanja built the Church of SAINT NICOLA, near Kursumlija, and reconstructed the Byzantine temple of MADONNA in the same region. The Saint Djordje Church near Novi Pazar (1170-1171), known as DJURDJEVI STUPOVI , was built as a symbol of Nemanja's victory over the Byzantines and to his brother Tihomir. It has the characteristics of a Romanesque temple. By building the monastery of STUDENICA (1183-1195) as his third foundation, aimed to be a mausoleum, Nemanja presented himself not only as a founder but as a person aware of his role in the establishment of the construction tradition in Serbia. Madonna church in StudenicaThe testimony of that is its foundation and especially the MADONNA CHURCH in Studenica. For its construction the most capable skilled masters were engaged. They were able to combine the Byzantine space ensemble of the temple with the Romanesque external shape and thus achieve an original combination of these two construction concepts. Partly imitating the former, Nemanja's foundations at Studenica constructors had formed one nave building with three traways, a three part altar space and a rectangular priprat separated from naos by a wall. The external form of the construction, except the cupola, is entirely Romanesque.



Further development of Raska construction is seen in the monastery of ZICA. Zica was built by Stefan Prvovencani as his foundation (1207-1220). It later became the seat of the archbishop and its founder was crowned in it as the first Serbian King. After that, the following monumental constructions were built: the external priprat of the Madonna Church in Studenica, MILESEVA, SAINT APOSTOLES in Pec, SOPOCANI, GRADAC, MORACA, ARILJE. All of these churches have a simple and harmonious architecture that follows the basic development trend of Serbian construction started by Nemanja's foundations.



All the foundations of the 13th century, with a few exceptions, belong to the Raska school as well as some built in the 14th century such as the monastery of DECANI near Pec (1327-1335), the foundation of King Stefan Uros III Decanski.

During the 13th century the Raska temple gained its final shape and space structure. Byzantine space ensemble gains an external Romanesque construction.





By the end of 13th and in the first half of 14th century the Serbian state enlarged over Macedonian, Epirus and Tesaly up to the Aegean Sea. On these new territories Serbian art was even more influenced by the Byzantine art tradition.

GracanicaGRACANICA, which was entirely rebuilt by King Milutin in 1321, is the most beautiful monument of Serbian architecture from the 14th century. The church of this monastery is an example of a construction that achieved the highest degree of architecture not only in the Byzantine form but in the creation of an original and freestyle exceeding its models. The wall creation in steps is one of the basic characteristics of this temple. The KING'S CHURCH in Studenica, characterized as an ideal church, was built in the first decades of the 14th



By the end of the third decade of the 14th century the Pec Patriarchate had finally been shaped. The exterior of the Patriarchate is a vision of shapes characteristic of contemporary Serbian architecture. On the major part of the outer walls paint decoration was used instead of stone relief and brick and stone decoration.



MORAVIAN SCHOOL

From the Marica battle time in 1371 till the invasion of Smederevo by the Turks in 1459, the center of the country and the art trends moved to the area of Velika and Zapadna Morava. By using former architectonic solutions Moravian artists created buildings which have a three nave shape combined with a Greek style cross, with one or five cupolas, according to the model Sveta Gora.

RavanicaIn the chronology of the Moravian School, first came the church of the RAVANICA MONASTRY, foundation by Prince Lazar. Its construction started in 1375. This style of architecture is considered to be the most original and characteristic of the national art. Ravanica construction was marked by a new type of buildings which was exploited in the later temples: JUBOSTINJA , NOVA PAVLICA and DRENCA. Immediately after Ravanica, somewhere about 1337, Prince Lazar built in Krusevac a royal church LAZARICA--an ideal in decoration.



The church of the RESAVA MONASTRY built between 1408 and 1417 returns to the luxury traditions avoiding any plastic decoration. The church of the KALENIC MONASTRY is an example of the high quality of the Moravian school construction. An unknown mason expressed a desire for a luxurious plastic decoration carefully cut in stone ornaments. On the window portals and upper parts of the building there is a spectrum of man- and animal-like creatures.

After the fall of Smederevo, in 1459, the artistic life was partly transferred into the area across Sava and Danube rivers where, under the pressure of Turks, the Serbian aristocrats had moved.

KrusedolThe temples built on the slopes of Fruska Gora, which from the middle of the 15th century and during the following centuries was the spiritual and cultural center of the Serbian people, included: THE CHURCH OF SAINT NICOLA in Slankamen (seventies or eighties of the 15th century), THE CHURCH OF THE KRUSEDOL MONASTRY (between 1509 and 1514) and THE CHURCH OF THE SAINT KUZMAN AND DAMJAN in Rakovac (before 1514). Devotion to the Moravian areas and architectonic solutions is shown by THE SAINT NICOLA CHURCH in Novo Hopovo, the most important church in the Danubian region.



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