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Tema: Jedan cas iz istorije fotografije > Meet Margaret Bourke-White  (Pročitano 7619 puta)
23. Jun 2006, 16:02:18
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Margaret Bourke-White (June 14, 1904 – August 27, 1971) was an American photographer and photo journalist. She was born in the Bronx, New York, to Joseph White (who came from an Orthodox Jewish family) and Minnie Bourke, the daughter of an Irish ship's carpenter and an English cook; she was a Protestant.

Margaret grew up in Bound Brook, New Jersey.

In 1922, she began studying herpetology at Columbia University, where she developed an interest in photography after studying under Clarence White. In 1925, she married Everett Chapman, but the couple divorced a year later. After switching colleges several times (University of Michigan, Purdue University in Indiana, and Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio), Margaret graduated from Cornell University in 1927. A year later, she moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where she became an industrial photographer at the Otis Steel Company.

In 1929, she accepted a job as associate editor for Fortune magazine. In 1930, she became the first Western photographer allowed into the Soviet Union. She was hired by Henry Luce as the first female photojournalist for Life magazine.

Her photographs of the construction of the Fort Peck Dam were featured in the first issue, dated November 23, 1936, including the cover. This cover photograph became such an iconic image that it was featured as the 1930s representative to the United States Postal Service's Celebrate the Century series of commemorative postage stamps.

During the mid-1930s, Bourke-White, like Dorothea Lange, photographed drought victims of the Dust Bowl. Bourke-White was married to novelist Erskine Caldwell from 1939 to 1942, and together they collaborated on You Have Seen Their Faces (1937).
 
USPS stamp depicting Life magazine cover bearing Fort Peck Dam photograph

Bourke-White was the first female war correspondent and the first woman to be allowed to work in combat zones during World War II. In 1941, she traveled to Russia just as Germany broke its pact of non-aggression with the Soviet Union. She was the only foreign photographer in Moscow when German forces invaded. Taking refuge in the U.S. Embassy, she then captured the ensuing firestorms on camera.

As the war progressed, she was attached to the US army air force in North Africa, then to the US Army in Italy and later Germany. She repeatedly came under fire in Italy in areas of fierce fighting.

In the spring of 1945, she traveled through a collapsing Germany with General George Patton. In this period, she arrived at Buchenwald, the notorious concentration camp. She is quoted as saying, "Using a camera was almost a relief. It interposed a slight barrier between myself and the horror in front of me." After the war, she produced a book entitled Dear Fatherland, Rest Quietly, a project that helped her come to grips with the brutality she had witnessed during and after the war.

During the 1950s, Bourke-White was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. She died in Connecticut, aged 67.

She was portrayed by Farrah Fawcett in a television movie and by Candice Bergen in the 1982 film Gandhi.
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1937
At Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territory, Canada
Margaret Bourke-White
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1937
Bread Line during the Louisville flood, Kentucky
Margaret Bourke-White
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1941
Cocktails on Gorky Street, Moscow
Margaret Bourke-White
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1936
Diversion Tunnels, Fort Peck Dam
Margaret Bourke-White
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1945
Dr. Kurt Lisso, Leipzig's city treasurer, and his wife and daughter after taking poison to avoid surrender to U.S. troops, Leipzig
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1936
Fort Peck Dam
Margaret Bourke-White
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1945
German civilians made to face their nation's crimes, Buchenwald
Margaret Bourke-White
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1945
Hohenzollern Bridge, Cologne
Margaret Bourke-White
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1947
Jawaharlal Nehru, India
Margaret Bourke-White
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