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Tema: Biografije pisaca, umetnika, arhitekata  (Pročitano 158070 puta)
31. Okt 2006, 21:37:40
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Džon Ronald Ruel Tolkin ~ John Ronald Reuel Tolkien




Džon Ronald Ruel Tolkin (John Ronald Reuel Tolkien) (3. januar 1892. – 2. septembar 1973)
je bio profesor anglosaksonskog jezika na Oksfordskom univerzitetu u periodu od 1925. do 1945. godine, kao i profesor engleskog jezika i književnosti, takođe na Oksfordu, od 1945. do 1959. godine. Bavio se pisanjem epske fantastike, fantastike uopšte i poezije tokom celog života, i kroz njih je doživeo međunarodnu slavu.

Van naučnih krugova, najpoznatiji je kao autor romana „Gospodar prstenova”, zatim njegovog prethodnika, „Hobita”, kao i velikog broja posthumno izdatih knjiga o istoriji zamišljenog sveta zvanog Arda, najviše jednog njenog kontinenta, Srednje zemlje, gde se odigrava radnja ova njegova dva najpoznatija romana. Velika popularnost i uticaj ovih dela su ustoličila Tolkina kao oca žanra moderne visoke fantastike (eng. High-fantasy).

Što se tiče naučnih krugova, bio je visoko uvaženi leksikograf i stručak za anglosaksonski i staronordijski jezik. Pripadao je književnoj diskusionoj grupi The Inklings i bio je blizak prijatelj sa K.S. Luisom (C.S. Lewis).


Biografija

Tolkin je rođen u Blumfontejnu (Bloemfontein) u današnjoj Južnoafričkoj Republici, kao sin Artura Tolkina (Arthur Tolkien), engleskog bankara, i Mejbel Tolkin, rođene Safild (Mabel Tolkien, neé Suffield). Većina Tolkinovih predaka po ocu, koliko je poznato, bili su zanatlije. Porodica Tolkin potiče iz Saksonije u Nemačkoj, ali živi u Engleskoj od XVIII veka. Prezime Tolkin je anglicizirano Tollkiehn od nemačkog tollkühn, ludo odvažan. Lik pod imenom Profesor Rašbold (Professor Rushbold) u The Notion Club Papers je aluzija na ovo ime. Tolkin je imao samo jednog brata, Hilarija Artura Ruela Tolkina (Hillary Arthur Reuel Tolkien), rođenog 17. februara 1894. godine.

Tolkin se sa svojom majkom, koja se teško nosila sa afričkom klimom, vratio u Englesku u trećoj godini – otac mu je umro u Južnoj Africi od teškog krvarenja u mozgu pre nego što im se mogao pridružiti. Pošto je on bio jedini član porodice koji je bio zaposlen, živeli su sa Mejbelinim roditeljima u Birmingemu (Birmingham) neko vreme, ali su uskoro, već 1896, prešli u Serhol (Sarehole), tada selo u Vorvikširu (Warwickshire), a danas deo Birmingema.

Mejbel je podučavala svoja dva sina i Džon je bio predan učenik. Naučila ga je mnogo o botanici, ali najviše su ga zanimali jezici – majka ga je naučila osnovama latinskog vrlo rano. Naučio je da čita u četvrtoj godini, a ubrzo je znao i dobro da piše. Pohađao je Školu kralja Edvarda (King Edward’s School), Akademiju kralja Filipa (King Phillip’s Academy) i studirao je na Egzeter koledžu u Oksfordu (Exeter College, Oxford).

Njegova majka je prešla u rimokatoličku veru, uprkos oštrim protestima njene porodice. Umrla je od dijabetesa 1904, kada je Tolkinu bilo dvanaest godina, a on je ceo život smatrao da je postala mučenik za svoju veru, što će imati veliki uticaj na njegova katolička uverenja. Tolkinova predana vera je bila značajni faktor u prevođenju K.S. Luisa u hrišćanstvo, a njegova dela sadrže dosta hrišćanske simbolike i vrednosti.

Budući siroče, odgajio ga je otac Frensis Morgan (Father Francis Morgan) iz Birmingemskog oratorijuma, u delu Birmingema zvanom Edžbaston (Edgbaston), gde je dalje i odrastao.

Tamo je upoznao i zaljubio se u Edit Brat (Edith Bratt) (koja će kasnije poslužiti kao model za Lutijenu). Uprkos mnogim preprekama, on uspeva da se oženi njome, svojom prvom i najiskrenijom ljubavi u životu.

Tolkin se priključio britanskoj vojsci tokom Prvog svetskog rata. U tom periodu je video mnoge sadrugove, od kojih su neki bili njegovi najbliži prijatelji, kako ginu, a on sam je uskoro završio u bolnici zbog rovovske groznice. Tokom oporavka, počinje da piše seriju bajki, zasnovanih na proučavanju mitologije i folklora, koje naziva „Knjiga izgubljenih priča” (The Book of Lost Tales). Proučavaoci njegovih dela kažu da je rat uticao na njegovo pisanje i to tako što je kroz fantaziju nalazio put da pobegne od okrutne realnosti fabrika, mašina, pušaka i bombi XX veka.

Njegovo prvo civilno zaposlenje nakon rata bilo je na Oksfordskom rečniku engleskog jezika (Oxford English Dictionary), u kojem je, među mnogim drugim, reč morž (eng. 'walrus') njegov unos. 1920. godine postaje docent za engleski jezik na Univerzitetu u Lidsu (University of Leeds), ali se 1925. vraća u Oksford kao profesor anglosaksonskog jezika. 1945. godine prelazi na oksfordski koledž Merton (Merton College, Oxford), gde postaje profesor engleskog jezika i književnosti, što ostaje sve do penzionisanja 1959. godine.

Džon i Edit Tolkin imaju četvoro dece: Džona Fransisa Ruela [John Francis Reuel] (1917.), Majkla Hilarija Ruela [Michael Hilary Reuel] (1920.), Kristofera Ruela [Christopher Reuel] (1924.) i Prisilu Anu Ruel [Priscilla Anne Reuel] (1929.).

Tolkin je umro u Oksfordu 1973. godine, i sahranjen je na groblju Volverkot (Wolvercote Cemetery) kraj svoje žene Edit, a na nadgrobnom spomeniku su uz njihova imena uklesana i imena Berena i Lutjene, upoređujući njihovu ljubav sa najvećom ljubavnom pričom Srednje zemlje.


Pisanje

Tolkin je uživao u izmišljanju priča da bi zabavio decu. Svake godine je za njih pisao pisma od Božić Bate i slao im ih za Božić. Ona su sakupljena i izdata u knjizi pod imenom „Očeva božićna pisma” (The Father Christmass Letters).

Tolkin nikada nije očekivao da će njegove priče postati popularne. Na nagovor bivšeg studenta, izdao je knjigu koju je napisao za svoju decu pod naslovom „Hobit” (The Hobbit) 1937. godine. Iako namenjena deci, postala je popularna i kod odrasle čitalačke publike, i to dovoljno popularna da izdavačka kuća „Allen & Unwin” zatraži od Tolkina da napiše nastavak. Ovo je rezultiralo njegovim najpoznatijim delom, koje će postati trotomni roman „Gospodar prstenova” (The Lord of the Rings) (izdat u periodu 1954-1955). Tolkinu je trebalo skoro deset godina da napiše svoju sagu, tokom kojih je imao svesrdnu podršku prijatelja iz The Inklings, posebno K.S. Luisa, autora poznate serije knjiga o zemlji Narniji.

„Gospodar prstenova” je ubrzo postao veoma popularna knjiga kod mlađe populacije 1960-ih, i do danas je ostao u vrhu čitanosti kao jedno od najpopularnijih dela fantastike XX veka, i prema prodaji i prema ispitivanjima čitatelja. Tolkin je u početku nameravao da ispriča dečiju priču sličnu „Hobitu”, ali ona je ubrzo prerasla u mračnije i ozbiljnije delo. Iako direktan nastavak „Hobita”, obraća se starijoj publici, opisujući mnogo dublju i veću istoriju Srednje zemlje, čija će se veličina i sjaj pokazati tek u posthumno skupljenim rukopisima izdatim u knjizi „Silmarilion” (The Silmarillion) i drugim knjigama.

Tolkin je bio profesionalni filolog i jezici i mitologije koje je proučavao ostavili su veliki trag u njegovim delima. Tako su imena Patuljaka iz „Hobita” potiču iz mitova Voluspa (Völuspá) i Eda (Edda), dok su neki zapleti (npr. krađa pehara iz zmajevog legla) uzeti iz epa „Beovulf” (Beowulf).

Tolkin je nastavio da se bavi istorijom Srednje zemlje do svoje smrti. Njegov sin Kristofer Tolkin je uz pomoć pisca fantastike Gaja Gavrijela Keja (Guy Gavriel Kay) sredio deo tog materijala i izdao ga u jednom delu pod imenom „Silmarilion” 1977. godine. Kristofer je nastavio da sređuje i izdaje materijal vezan za nastanak Srednjeg sveta, odnosno dela kao što su Istorija Srednje zemlje” (The History of Middle-earth)" u dvanaest tomova i „Nedovršene priče” (Unfinished Tales). Ona sadrže nedovršene, napuštene, alternativne i često kontradiktorne verzije priča na kojima je Tolkin radio decenijama, često ih prerađujući, prepisujući i proširujući. Samo je „Silmarilion” u skladu sa prethodno izdatim romanima, i to samo zahvaljujući Kristoferovoj preradi – iako i on sam kaže da i dalje ostaju neke nesuglasice. Čak je i „Hobit” ostao delimično neusaglašen sa „Gospodarom prstenova” nakon njegovog izdavanja, iako je mnogo toga izmenjeno i čak jedno celo poglavlje prerađeno u drugom izdanju iz 1951.

U univerzitetu Market (Marquette University) u Milvokiju, Viskonsin, SAD (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA) čuvaju se originalni rukopisi „Gospodara prstenova” i „Hobita”, dok su u Oksfordu rukopis „Silmariliona” i Tolkinovih naučnih radova (među kojima i najbolji prevod epa „Beovulf” na engleski jezik, koji je nađen tek nedavno, ali je već postao obavezna literatura za studente engleskog jezika i književnosti u Oksfordu).


Jezici

Filologija, nauka o jezicima, ostala je Tolkinova najveća ljubav tokom celog života. Budući lingvista, stvorio je čak petnaest veštačkih jezika, od kojih su napoznatija dva vilovnjačka iz „Gospodara prstenova” : kvenija i sindarin. Kasnije je razvio čitavu kosmogoniju i istoriju Srednje zemlje kao pozadinu za te jezike. Uz ogromno poznavanje anglosaksonskog i drevnog norveškog jezika, Tolkin je govorio ili razumeo dosta evropskih jezika, od velškog i gelskog do romanskih (francuski, španski i italijanski), germanskih (rani oblici nemačkog i holandskog kao što je stari saksonski) i baltičkih i slovenskih (kao što su litvanski i ruski, a sa razumevanjem je čitao i srpski). Od svih jezika koje je znao, najviše je voleo finski, koji je naučio da bi u originalu mogao pročitati finski ep Kalevala (Kalevala); govorio je da mu zvuk finskog najviše prija.


Bibliografija

Imena dela su data u originalu, uz naslov na srpskom jeziku, ako je delo prevedeno i izdato na njemu.


Naučni radovi

    * A Middle-English Vocabulary (1922)
    * Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1924) – sa E.V. Gordonom, anonimno remek-delo srednjoengleske književnosti
    * Some Contributions to Middle-English Lexicography (1925)
    * The Devil’s Coach Horses (1925)
    * Anacrene Wisse and Hali Meiohad (1929)
    * Sigelwara Land – I & II (1932/1935)
    * The Reeve’s Tale (1934)
    * The Monsters and the Critics (1936) – predavanje, revolucionarna savremena kritika „Beovulfa”
    * Songs for the Philologistis (1936)
    * On Fairy-Stories (1939)
    * Sir Orfeo (1944) – izdanje srednjovekovne pesme
    * On Fairy-Stories (1947) – esej
    * Ofermod (1953) – uz pesmu The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth, Beorhthelm’s Son
    * Ancrene Wisse: The English Text of Ancrene Riwle (1962)
    * English and Welsh (1963)
    * Jerusalem Bible (1966) – pomoćni prevodilac i leksikograf


Proza

    * The Hobbit or There and Back Again (1937) – Hobit ili Tamo i opet natrag
    * The Leaf by Niggle (1945) – Mazalov list – kratka priča
    * Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) – Farmer Gil od Buta
    * The Lord of the Rings - Gospodar prstenova
          o The Fellowship of the Ring (1954) – Družina Prstena
          o The Two Towers (1954) – Dve kule
          o The Return of the King (1955) – Povratak kralja
    * Tree and Leaf (1964) – Drvo i List (O Vilinskim pričama i Mazalov List uz pesmu Mitopeja)
    * Tolkien on Tolkien (1966) – autobiografija
    * Smith of Wotton Major (1967) – Kovač iz Velikog Vutona


Poezija

Godine označavaju vreme nastanka, osim ako nije drugačije napomenuto.

    * The Battle of the Eastern Field (1911)
    * From the many-willow'd margin of the immemorial Thames (1913)
    * Goblin Feet (1915)
    * The Happy Mariners (1920)
    * The Clerke's Compleinte (1920)
    * Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden (1923)
    * The City of the Gods (1923)
    * The Eadigan Saelidan (1923)
    * Why the Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon (1923)
    * Enigmala Saxonic - a Nuper Inventa Duo (1923)
    * The Cat and the Fiddle: A Nursery-Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous secret Unlocked (1923)
    * An Evening in Tavrobel (1924)
    * The Lonely Isle (1924)
    * The Princess Ni (1924)
    * Light as Leaf on Lindentree (1925)
    * The Nameless Land (1926)
    * Adventures in Unnatural History and Medieval Metres, being the Freaks of Fisiologus (1927)
    * Progress in Bimble Town (1931)
    * Errantry (1933)
    * Fíriel (1934)
    * The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (1934)
    * Songs for the Philologists sa E.V. Gordonom i dr., izdato 1936.
    * The Dragon's Visit (1937)
    * Knocking at the Door: Lines induced by sensations when waiting for an answer a the door of an Exalted Academic Person (1937)
    * The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun (1945)
    * The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth, Beorhthelm's Son (1953)
    * Imram (1955)
    * Zbirka The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book – Avanture Toma Bombadila i drugi stihovi iz Crvene knjige (1962)
    * Bilbo's Last Song (1966)
    * Zbirka The Road Goes Ever On izdata (1967)
    * Once upon a time (1965)
    * For W. H. A. (1967)
    * Lay of the Children of Húrin – štampana u The Lays of Beleriand (1985)
    * The Lay of Leithian – štampana u The Lays of Beleriand (1985)


Posthumno izdata dela

    * Prevodi pesama Pearl i Sir Orfeo (1975)
    * The Father Christmas Letters (1976)
    * The Silmarillion – Silmarilion (1977)
    * Pictures by J. R. R. Tolkien (1979)
    * Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth – Nedovršene priče Numenora i Srednjeg sveta (1980)
    * The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (priredili Kristofer Tolkin i Hamfri Karpenter [Humphrey Carpenter]) (1981)
    * The Old English Exodus Text (1981)
    * Finn and Hengest: The Fragment and the Episode (1981)
    * Mr. Bliss (1982)
    * The Monsters and the Critics – zbirka eseja (1983)
    * The History of Middle-Earth: (1983–1996)
          o I The Book of Lost Tales 1 (1983)
          o II The Book of Lost Tales 2 (1984)
          o III The Lays of Beleriand (1985)
          o IV The Shaping of Middle-earth (1986)
          o V The Lost Road and Other Writings (1987)
          o VI The Return of the Shadow (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 1) (1988)
          o VII The Treason of Isengard (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 2) (1989)
          o VIII The War of the Ring (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 3) (1990)
          o IX Sauron Defeated (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 4) (1992)
          o X Morgoth's Ring (The Later Silmarillion vol. 1) (1993)
          o XI The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion vol. 2) (1994)
          o XII The Peoples of Middle-earth (1996)
          o Index (2002)
    * J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator – zbirka Tolkinove umetnosti (1995)
    * Roverandom – [?] (1998)


Knjige o Tolkinu i njegovom svetu

Mali izbor od knjiga koje su napisane o Dž.R.R.Tolkinu i njegovom svetu:

    * J. R. R. Tolkien - A Biography – biografija autora Hamfrija Karpentera [Humphrey Carpenter] (1977)
    * The Complete Guide to Middle-earth – enciklopedijska knjiga Roberta Fostera [Robert Foster] (1978)
    * Journeys of Frodo – atlas „Gospodara prstenova” autora Barbare Streči [Barbara Strachey] (1981)
    * The Atlas of Middle-earth – atlas „Gospodara prstenova”, „Hobita”, „Silmariliona” i „Nedovršenih priča” autora Keren Vin Fonstad [Karen Wynn Fonstad] (1991)
    * J. R. R. Tolkien - Author of the Century – T.A. Šipi [T. A. Shippey] (2000)
    * The Complete Tolkien Companion - 3rd edition – enciklopedijska knjiga, koja pokriva „Gospodara prstenova”, „Hobita”, „Silmarilion” i „Nedovršene priče”, znatno dopunjeno izdanje od prethodna dva, autora Dž.E.A. Tajler [J. E. A. Tyler]


Filmovi zasnovani na Tolkinovim knjigama

    * „Gospodar prstenova” je adaptiran u film iz tri dela (2001, 2002. i 2003), koji je režirao novozelandski reditelj Piter Džekson [Peter Jackson].
    * 1978. godine je Ralf Bakši [Ralph Bakshi] režirao animirani film (sniman u rotoskop tehnici) koji pokriva otprilike polovinu romana, a čiji nastavak nije nikada snimljen. 1980. je drugi reditelj, Rankin-Bas [Rankin-Bass], snimio dečiji animirani film koji se ugrubo nastavlja na Bakšijev, pod nazivom Povratak kralja, a isti reditelj je nešto ranije (1977) snimio i animirani TV film prema „Hobitu”.

Tolkin je prava za film, scenu i robu „Hobita” i „Gospodara prstenova” prodao firmi United Artists 1968. godine, ali oni nikada nisu snimili film, tako da su 1976. prodali prava firmi Tolkien Enterprises. Prava za „Silmarilion” i dalje pripadaju firmi The J.R.R. Tolkien Estate ltd., koja je u vlasništvu njegovih potomaka.


Umetnici

Umetnici koji su inspiraciju našli u Tolkinovim delima, kao i umetnici koji su oslikali izdanja njegovih dela na srpskom jeziku:

    * Polina Bejns [Pauline Bayens] – Tolkinova omiljena umetnica
    * Inger Edelfeld [Inger Edelfeldt]
    * Rodžer Garland [Roger Garland]
    * Majkl Hejg [Michael Hague]
    * Tim i Greg Hildebrant [Tim and Greg Hildebrant]
    * Džon Hau [John Howe] – učestvovao u vizuelnom oblikovanju Džeksonovog „Gospodara prstenova”
    * Alan Li [Alan Lee] – učestvovao u vizuelnom oblikovanju Džeksonovog „Gospodara prstenova”
    * Angus MekBrajd [Angus McBride]
    * Ted Nasmit [Ted Nasmith]

    * Dobrosav Bob Živković
    * Vlada Vesović


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Михаило Голубовић (1872, Ниш - 1936, Ниш), српски правник и боем, писац "Калчиних прича"

По образовању је био правник. Службовао је у Нишу, Пироту, Сурдулици, Власотинцу, Београду. Знао је неколико светских језика. Друговао је са обичним народом и нашим водећим интелектуалцима оног доба. Пошто се није женио ни заснивао породицу, живео је мераклијски и боемски, проводећи много времена на весељима и по кафанама. Умео је лепо да прича и још боље да слуша, па је развио особен књижевни дар, који је показао у анегдотским причама о старом Нишу.[1] Те приче су први пут објављене 1911. као фељтон "Записи из старог Ниша" у "Политици" а затим и као књига "Калчине приче".


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Markiz de sade

Donatien Alphonse Francois, markiz de Sade (2. lipnja 1740., Pariz- 2. prosinca 1814., Charenton),zloglasni francuski pisac filozofske, ponekad izrazito nasilne pornografije.Propovjednik ekstremne slobode, nesputane moralom, vjerom, ili zakonom, čije je najviše i jedino načelo osobni užitak. U svojim pornografskim romanima on je zagovarao ateizam, što Katolička Crkva nije odobravala. Rodio se u Parizu kao sin grofa, a ne markiza.Taj mu naslov nije pripadao, kao ni njegovim precima. Najranije obrazovanje primio je od ujaka, svećenika,(koji je kasnije uhićen u bordelu).Nakon toga ide u jezuitski licej, školu isključivo za dječake.Kasnije se prijavljuje u vojsku, sudjelovavši u Sedmogodišnjem ratu.Iz rata se vraća 1763. godine, te se ženi sa Rénee-Pélagie de Montreuil, koja mu je rodila dva sina i kćer. Nakon braka, počinje se ponašati raspušteno i razvratno.Zlostavlja mlade prostitutke, pa je pod prismotrom policije. Nešto kasnije u životu, kao sudionica njegovih zlodjela biti će i Rénee.Imao je aferu sa šurjakinjom, te je jednom s njom i pobjegao u Italiju.Svekrva mu to nikad nije oprostila.Veliki dio života, čak 32 godine proveo je u zatvoru. Većinu svojih opscenih romana napisao je u zatočeništvu.Jedno vrijeme bio je i u Bastilji, gdje je susreo drugog aristokrata imenom Honore Mirebau.On je također pisao erotska djela, ali se nijh dvoje nisu mogli organski podnijeti.Živio je u dvorcu Lacoste, kojeg će na kraju morati i prodati. Nekoliko puta izbjegao je da ga ubije giljotina. Uhićen je po naredbama najviših organa vlasti, kao što su kralj Luj XVI. i Napoleon Bonaparte.Bio je zgrožen Vladavinom terora i Francuskom revolucijom. Napisao je eulogiju kad je ubijen Jean-Paul Marat. 1801. uhićen je i poslan u umobolnicu Charenton, gdje je proveo ostatak života. Bio je debeo.Rénee se od njega razvela 1790. U umobolnici je počeo vezu sa jednom djevojčicom od 13 godina. Umro je pola godine nakon 74. rođendana. Djela:

   * Justine
   * Juliette
   * 120 dana Sodome
   * Filozofija u budoaru, navodno njegovo najbolje djelo.


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Dejan Ajdačić


Dejan Ajdačić (rođen 22. januara 1959. u Beogradu) je srpski filolog, folklorista, etnolingvista, teoretičar književnosti, prevodilac i urednik.

Diplomirao je na Filološkom fakultetu u Beogradu (Grupa za jugoslovenske i opštu književnost) radom Boje u narodnoj poeziji. Magistarsku tezu Poimanje ljubavi i lepote u pesništvu dubrovačke renesanse odbranio je 1986. godine, a doktorsku disertaciju Svet demona u književnosti srpskog romantizma 2000.

Radio je u Univerzitetskoj biblioteci u Beogradu, a sada predaje srpsku književnost i jezik na Institutu filologije kijevskog Nacionalnog univerziteta „Taras Ševčenko“. Kao gost držao je predavanja u Velikom Trnovu, Peskari, Lođu, Varšavi, Gdanjsku, Lublinu...

Objavio je stotinak radova o folkloru balkanskih Slovena, srpskoj i slovenskim književnostima (na srpskom, engleskom, italijanskom, bugarskom, poljskom, ukrajinskom i ruskom jeziku).

Objavljivao je prevode sa ruskog, ukrajinskog, bugarskog i italijanskog jezika.

Osnivač je i glavni urednik časopisa Kodovi slovenskih kultura (od 1996) koji objavljuje priloge iz folkloristike i etnolingvistike, i ukrajinsko-srpskog zbornika Ukras (od 2006). Bio je urednik lista Književna reč (1995).

Upravnik je kulturne mreže Projekta Rastko, osnivač sajta Slovenska kapija.

Član je Komisije za etnolingvistiku pri Međunarodnom komitetu slavista.

Autorske knjige

Izabrana dela, koautorski sa Ivanom Srdanovićem, Beograd, 1988.
Novak Kilibarda - naučnik, književnik, Bar, 2000, 437 str.
Prilozi proučavanju folklora balkanskih Slovena, Beograd, 2004, 311 str.
Korotkij ukraјinsko-serbskij slovnik spolučuvanostі slіv. Navčal'nij slovnik, Kijiv, 2005, 126 str. [koautor: Julіja Bіlonog]
Slavistička istraživanja, Beograd, 2007, 298 str.
Futuroslavija. Studije o slovenskoj naučnoj fantastici, Beograd, 2008, 104 str.

Priređeni zbornici


The Magical and Aesthetic in the Folklore of Balkan Slavs (1994)
Fotografije Vojislava M. Jovanovića (1997, sa Milankom Todić)
Kilibarda, Novak. Epska mjera istorije (1998)
Kilibarda, Novak. Usmena književnost pred čitaocem (1998)
Kilibarda, Novak. Usmena književnost u službi pisane (1998)
Antiutopije u slovenskim književnostima (1999)
Erotsko u folkloru Slovena (2000)
Čudo u slovenskim kulturama (2000)
Jovanović, Vojislav M. Zbornik radova o narodnoj književnosti (2001, sa Ilijom Nikolićem)
Rjabčuk, Mikola. Od Malorusije do Ukrajine (2003)
Novіtnja serbs'ka dramaturgіja (2006)
Apokryfy i legendy starotestamentowe Słowian południowych (2006, sa Georgijem Minčevim i Malgožatom Skovronek)
Slovenska naučna fantastika (2007, sa Bojanom Jovićem).

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Life iz simple, make choices and don't look back

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Borislav Jovanović

16. oktobar 1941., Danilovgrad), crnogorski pisac, pesnik, esejista, književni kritičar.

Tokom 1990-ih i kasnije Jovanović je, kao uticajni kolumnista dnevnog lista Pobjeda i Crnogorskog književnog lista, afirmisao plejadu mlađih crnogorskih pisaca 

Smatra se "najznačajnijim tumačem recentnih tokova crnogorske literarne prakse" 

Bio je aktivni učesnik oštre javne borbe za ustavno priznanje crnogorskog jezika 

Jovanović se bavi i temama iz crnogorske kulturne i političke istorije . Njegovi radovi o toj problematici su objedinjeni u knjizi "Libroskopija" (2002.) 

Diplomirao je na Filološkom fakultetu u Beogradu. Član je Crnogorskog društva nezavisnih književnika i Matice crnogorske.

Kao pesnik, Jovanović je dobitnik Ratkovićeve nagrade, najvećeg crnogorskog priznanja iz oblasti poezije za svoju zbirku pesama "Kenotaf" 

Autor je i nekoliko zbirki pjesama za djecu.

Važnija djela

    * "Starac i zvijezde" (1979.)
    * "Staze" (1983.)
    * "Amputacije" (2001.)
    * "Libroskopija:Prikazi iz savremene crnogorske književnosti i istoriografije" (2002.)
    * "Crnogorski književni urbanitet" (2005.)
    * "Biblion:Crnogorska poezija devedesetih" (2006.)
    * "Kenotaf" (2006.)


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Ne tece to reka,nego voda!Ne prolazi vreme,već mi!

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Borislav Pekić

Borislav Pekić rođen je 4. februara 1930. godine u Podgorici. Živeo je u Podgorici, Novom Bečeju, Mrkonjić - Gradu, Kninu, Cetinju i Bavaništu u Banatu. Od 1945. godine živeo je u Beogradu, gde je pohađao Treću mušku gimnaziju i maturirao 1948. godine. Od 1948. do 1953. je bio na izdržavanju kazne u KPD Sremska Mitrovica i KPD Niš kao pripadnik SDOJ. Bio je osuđen na petnaest godina strogog zatvora, ali je 1953. godine pomilovan.

Studirao je eksperimentalnu psihologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu Beogradskog univerziteta.

Radio je od 1958. do 1964. godine kao dramaturg i scenarista u filmskoj industriji i bio je autor je brojnih filmova. Prema njegovom tekstu Dan četrnaesti snimljen je film koji je predstavljao Jugoslaviju 1961. godine na filmskom festivalu u Kanu.

Prvi roman, Vreme čuda, objavljuje 1965. godine. Od 1971. godine živeo je i radio u Londonu.

Pekić je već Vremenom čuda izazvao veliko interesovanje široke čitalačke javnosti. Narednim knjigama svrstao se u vodeće i najplodnije jugoslovenske pisce. Nakon prve knjige objavio je portret Hodočašće Arsenija Njegovana (1970) za koji dobija NIN - ovu nagradu za roman godine, novelu Uspenje i sunovrat Ikara Gubelkijana (1975), novelu Odbrana i poslednji dani (1977), sotiju Kako upokojiti vampira (Prva nagrada Udruženih izdavača 1977), i roman Zlatno runo, fantasmagoriju u sedam tomova (1978-1986, za koji dobija 1987. Njegoševu nagradu), a koji mnogi smatraju jednim od najznačajnijih savremenih proznih ostvarenja kod nas. Po mišljenju žirija ovaj roman je ušao u izbor deset najboljih romana napisanih od 1982. do 1992. godine. Žanr romanom Besnilo (1983) Pekić je iz istorijske tematike odstupio i sačinio delo sa elementima trilera koji se zbiva na jednom od najvećih svetskih aerodroma – londonskom Hitrou. To je svojevrsna apokaliptična vizija sveta u kojem živimo. Knjiga je doživela je brojna izdanja. Pored Zlatnog runa i Godina koje su pojeli skakavci i ovaj roman je ušao u selekciju deset najboljih romana u srpskoj književnost od 1982. do 1991, po mišljenju čitalaca. I u sledećem objavljenom antropološkom romanu 1999, Pekić je ostao na tragu te negativne, često fantastične utopije (nagrada godine za naučnu fantastiku 1985).

Krajem 1984. godine, u izdanju "Partizanske knjige", izašla su Pekićeva Odabrana dela u 12 knjiga, za koja je dobio nagradu Udruženja književnika Srbije. Časopis Književnost dodeljuje mu 1986. "Povelju" povodom četrdesetogodišnjice izlaženja časopisa. Isto tako, za epos Atlantida (1988), dobija "Goranovu nagradu".

Godine koje su pojeli skakavci (knjiga prva), prema anketi dva beogradska dnevna lista, proglašena je za najbolju knjigu u 1987. godini. Knjiga je u kraćem vremenskom periodu doživela tri izdanja. Drugi tom pod istim naslovom 1989. dobija nagradu za memoarsku prozu "Miloš Crnjanski". Zbirka gotskih priča Novi Jerusalim izdata je 1989. godine. Povelju "Majska rukovanja" za izuzetne stvaralačke rezultate na polju književnosti i kulture dobija 1990. od doma omladine "Budo Tomović" iz Podgorice.

Pisma iz tuđine (1987), Nova pisma iz tuđine (1989, nagrada Sent-Andreje "Jaša Ignjatović") i Poslednja pisma iz tuđine (1991. godišnja nagrada Grafičkog ateljea "Dereta" za najuspešnije izdanje te godine) spadaju u publicistički domen ovog pisca. Esejistička proza, Sentimentalna povest britanskog carstva, objavljena u izdanju BIGZ-a (1992), doživela je tri izdanja. Posthumno je dodeljena počasna nagrada izdavača ovom delu 1993. Potom je BIGZ objavio knjigu Vreme reči (razgovori s Pekićem, priredio Božo Koprivica, 1993.), Odmor od istorije (eseji, priredio Radoslav Bratić, 1993), roman Graditelji (1994.) koji je 1995. godine bio BIGZ-ov bestseler, kao i Rađanje Atlantide (komentari, priredila Ljiljana Pekić, 1996.) takođe bestseler ovog izdavača. Dnevničke zabeleške Skinuto sa trake (izabrao i priredio Predrag Palavestra, 1996), bile su na bestseler listi "Narodne knjige" 1997. godine. Prvi tom komentara za Zlatno Runo pod naslovom U traganju za Zlatnim Runom (priredila Ljiljana Pekić) štampan je 1997. godine.

Pekić je autor oko 30 dramskih dela za pozorište, radio, televiziju, emitovanih i igranih na našim i stranim radio - televizijskim stanicama i pozorišnim scenama. Između ostalih Generali ili srodstvo po oružju (1972; Nagrada za komediju godine na Sterijinom pozorju u Novom Sadu), 186. stepenik – (1982; Prva nagrada Radio Zagreba). Povodom Dana Radio televizije Beograd dodeljena mu je 1987. diploma za osvojenu I nagradu na konkursu u kategoriji radio-dramske emisije. Drami Kako zabavljati gospodina Martina dodeljena je prva nagrada na festivalima u Ohridu i Varni (1990). Sledi godišnja nagrada "Knjeginja Milica" od strane pozorišta u Kruševcu 1991. godine, a novembra 1991. godine dobio je plaketu "Pečat" Narodnog pozorišta u Beogradu za specijalne zasluge.

Dela su mu prevedena na engleski, nemački, francuski, italijanski, španski, holandski, poljski, češki, slovački, mađarski, rumunski, retoromanski, makedonski, slovenački, albanski.

Od 1968. do 1969. bio je član uredništva Književnih novina, a u 1990. učestvuje u uređivanju prvih brojeva obnovljenog opozicionog lista Demokratija, organa Demokratske stranke, čiji je bio jedan od osnivača, potpredsednik i član Glavnog odbora. Bio je dopisni član Srpske akademije nauka i umetnosti od 1985. godine, član Krunskog saveta, potpredsednik PEN-a. Centar Beograd, član PEN-a Centar London, honorarni komentator srpskohrvatske sekcije Bi-Bi-Sija u Londonu. Bio je član Udruženja književnika Srbije, član Udruženja filmskih i član Udruženja dramskih umetnika Srbije. Posthumno ga je Nj. K. V. prestolonaslednik Aleksandar odlikovao Kraljevskim ordenom dvoglavog belog orla prvog stepena. Septembra 1997. dodeljena mu je Počasna plaketa od strane "Jugoslovenskog festivala Mojkovačke filmske jeseni" povodom 50. godišnjice Jugoslovenskog igranog filma.

Borislav Pekić je preminuo 2. jula 1992. godine u Londonu.

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high prudence

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Anthony Burgess

Anthony Burgess (25.2. 1917 – 22.11. 1993.) bio je britanski romanopisac, kritičar i kompozitor. Također je bio aktivan kao libretist, pjesnik, pijanist, dramatičar, scenarist, novinar, esejist, putopisac, spiker, prevodilac, lingvist i edukator.

Rođen je u Harpurhey, blizu Manchestera na sjeverozapadu Engleske, a veliki dio života je proveo u Jugoistočnoj Aziji, SAD i na Mediteranu.

Burgessova proza uključuje tzv. malajsku trilogiju (The Long Day Wanes), o sumraku Britanskog Imperija na Istoku; kvartet romana Enderbyju, samotnom pjesniku i njegovoj muzi; Nothing Like the Sun, klasičnu spekulativnu rekonstrukciju Shakespeareovog ljubavnog života; kultno istraživanje prirod zla A Clockwork Orange; i remek-djelo Earthly Powers, panoramsku sagu o 20. vijeku.

Burgess je pisao kritičke studije o Joyceu, Hemingwayu, Shakespeareu i Lawrenceu, traktate o lingvistici Language Made Plain i A Mouthful of Air, te je bio plodan novinar, pišući na nekoliko jezika.

Preveo je i adaptirao Cyrano de Bergerac, Kralj Edip i Carmen za teatar; napisao scenarije za mini-serije Jesus of Nazareth i Moses the Lawgiver; izmislio prahistorijski jezik koji se govori u filmu Potraga za vatrom; i komponirao Sinfoni Melayu, Simfoniju (No. 3) u C-duru i operu Blooms of Dublin.

izvor : Wiki

i engleska verzija (mnogo opsirnija)

Anthony Burgess (25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993) was an English author, poet, playwright, musician, linguist, translator and critic.

Despite being most famous for the controversial dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange, a work he himself dismissed as one of his lesser efforts, Burgess produced numerous other novels including the Enderby quartet and Earthly Powers. He was a prominent critic, authoring acclaimed studies of classic writers William Shakespeare, James Joyce, D. H. Lawrence and Ernest Hemingway.

Aside from literature, Anthony Burgess was also an accomplished musician and linguist; he composed a number of notable libretti and translated the literary masterpieces Cyrano de Bergerac, Oedipus the King and Carmen, among others.

Biography

Early life

Burgess was born John Burgess Wilson on 25 February 1917 in Harpurhey, a suburb of Manchester, to a Catholic father and a Catholic convert mother. He was known in childhood as Jack Wilson, Little Jack, and Johnny Eagle. At his confirmation, the name Anthony was added and he became John Anthony Burgess Wilson. He began using the pen-name Anthony Burgess in 1956.

Elizabeth Burgess Wilson, Anthony Burgess' mother, died at the age of 30 at home on 19 November 1918, during the 1918–1919 Spanish flu pandemic. The causes listed on her death certificate were influenza, acute pneumonia, and cardiac failure. His sister Muriel had died four days earlier on 15 November from influenze, broncho-pneumonia, and cardiac failure, aged eight. Burgess believed that he was resented by his father, Joseph Wilson, for having survived the incident. After the death of his mother, Burgess was raised by his maternal aunt, Ann Bromley, in Crumpsall with her two daughters. During this time, Burgess's father worked as a bookkeeper for a beef market by day, and in the evening played the piano at a public house in Miles Platting. In 1922, Joseph Wilson married the landlady of the public house he worked at, Margaret Dwyer.Burgess was later raised by his stepmother. By 1924, Joseph and Margaret Wilson had established a tobacconist and off-licence business with four properties. The profits from the business paid for Burgess' education all the way to university.

He said of his largely solitary childhood: "I was either distractedly persecuted or ignored. I was one despised ... Ragged boys in gangs would pounce on the well-dressed like myself". He attended St. Edmund's Roman Catholic Elementary School before moving on to Bishop Bilsborrow Memorial Elementary School in Moss Side. He later reflected: "When I went to school I was able to read. At the Manchester elementary school I attended, most of the children could not read, so I was ... a little apart, rather different from the rest". Good grades resulted in a place at the Catholic Xaverian College.

Burgess wrote that as a young child he did not care about music, until he heard on his home-built radio "a quite incredible flute solo, sinuous, exotic, erotic" and became spellbound. Eight minutes later the announcer told him he had been listening to Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune by Claude Debussy. He referred to this as a "psychedelic moment ... a recognition of verbally inexpressible spiritual realities".Burgess announced to his family that he wanted to be a composer, who objected as "there was no money in it". Music was not taught at his school, and at about age 14 he taught himself to play the piano.

On 18 April 1938 at the age of 55, his father died from cardiac failure, pleurisy, and influenza. Intestate, he left no inheritance.

Burgess had originally hoped to study music at university, but the music department at the Victoria University of Manchester turned down his application due to poor grades in physics. Instead he studied English language and literature at the Victoria University of Manchester from 1937–1940, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts. His thesis was on the subject of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, and he graduated with an upper second-class honours which he was disappointed about. One of his professors at the University was A.J.P. Taylor; grading one of Burgess's term papers, he wrote: "Bright ideas insufficient to conceal lack of knowledge". Burgess first met Llewela Jones at Victoria University of Manchester, where she was studying economics, politics and modern history, graduating in 1942 with an upper second-class. The two would marry in 1942.

Military service

Burgess spent six weeks in 1940 as an army recruit in Eskbank, before becoming a Nursing Orderly Class 3 in the Royal Army Medical Corps. During his service, he was unpopular regarding himself as a "marked man" and was involved in incidents such as knocking off a corporal's cap and polishing the floor of a corridor to make people slip. In 1942 he asked to be transferred to the Army Educational Corps, and despite his loathing of authority he was promoted to sergeant. In Bournemouth in 1942 he married Llewela Jones, eldest daughter of a high-school headmaster. During the blackout, Lynne was attacked and suffered a broken finger as a result of her assailants trying to take her wedding ring off her. Burgess was denied leave to see her. She was known to all as "Lynne". She died of cirrhosis in 1968.

Burgess was next stationed in Gibraltar at an army garrison. He worked as a training college lecturer in speech and drama, teaching German, Russian, French and Spanish. An important role was the help he gave in taking troops through "The British Way and Purpose" programme, which was designed to reintroduce them to the peacetime socialism of the post-war years in Britain, and to gently inculcate a sense of patriotism. He was also an instructor for the Central Advisory Council for Forces Education of the Ministry of Education. Burgess's flair for languages was noticed by army intelligence, and he took part in debriefings of Free Dutch and Free French who found refuge in Gibraltar during the war. On one occasion in the neighbouring Spanish town of La Línea de la Concepción, he was arrested for insulting General Franco. He was released from custody shortly after the incident. Burgess was pursued by military police of the British Armed Forces for desertion after overstaying his leave from Morpeth military base with his bride Lynne in 1941.

Early teaching career

Burgess left the army in 1946 with the rank of sergeant-major, and was for the next four years a lecturer in speech and drama at the Mid-West School of Education near Wolverhampton and at the Bamber Bridge Emergency Teacher Training College near Preston.

In late 1950 he worked as a secondary school teacher at Banbury Grammar School, teaching English literature. In addition to his teaching duties Burgess was required to occasionally supervise sports, and he also ran the school's drama society. He organised a number of amateur theatrical events in his spare time. These involved local people and students and included productions of T. S. Eliot's Sweeney Agonistes.

With financial assistance provided by Lynne's father, the couple was able to put a down payment on a cottage in the village of Adderbury, close to Banbury. He named the cottage "Little Gidding", after one of Eliot's Four Quartets and Aldous Huxley's The Gioconda Smile. In Adderbury Burgess cut his journalistic teeth, with several of his contributions published in the local newspaper the Banbury Guardian.

Malaya

In 1954 Burgess joined the British Colonial Service as a teacher and education officer in Malaya. He was initially stationed at Kuala Kangsar in Perak, in what were then known as the Federated Malay States. Here he taught at the Malay College, dubbed "the Eton of the East" and now known as Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK). In addition to his teaching duties, he had responsibilities as a housemaster in charge of students of the preparatory school, who were housed at a Victorian mansion known as "King's Pavilion".

After an alleged dispute with the Malay College's principal over his accommodation, Burgess was posted elsewhere. He and his wife had occupied an apparently rather noisy apartment in the building mentioned above, where privacy was supposedly minimal, and this caused resentment. This was the professed reason for his transfer to the Malay Teachers' Training College at Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

Burgess attained fluency in Malay, spoken and written, achieving distinction in the examinations in the language set by the colonial office. He was rewarded with a salary increment for his proficiency in the language. Malay was still at that time rendered in the adapted Arabic script known as Jawi.

He devoted some of his free time in Malaya to creative writing "as a sort of gentlemanly hobby, because I knew there wasn't any money in it" and published his first novels, Time for a Tiger, The Enemy in the Blanket and Beds in the East. These became known as The Malayan Trilogy and were later published in one volume as The Long Day Wanes. During his time in the East he also wrote English Literature: A Survey for Students, and this book was in fact the first Burgess work published.

Borneo

After a brief period of leave in Britain during 1958, Burgess took up a further Eastern post, this time at the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin College in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei, a sultanate on the northern coast of the island of Borneo. Brunei had been a British protectorate since 1888, and was not to achieve independence until 1984. In the sultanate Burgess sketched the novel that, when it was published in 1961, was to be entitled Devil of a State. Although it dealt with Brunei, for libel reasons the action had to be transposed to an imaginary East African territory the like of Zanzibar.

About this time Burgess "collapsed" in a Brunei classroom while teaching history. There were reports that he had been diagnosed as having an inoperable brain tumour, with the likelihood of only surviving a short time, occasioning the alleged breakdown. Burgess has claimed that he was given just a year to live by the physicians, prompting him to write several novels to get money to provide for his widow. This was misleading - there was no tumour, nor was a tumour ever diagnosed - and has been explained by Burgess's biographers by reference to his (mild and mischievous) mythomania.

He was, however, suffering from the effects of prolonged heavy drinking (and associated poor nutrition), of the often oppressive Southeast Asian climate, of chronic constipation, and of overwork and professional disappointment. As he put it, the scions of the sultans and of the elite in Brunei "did not wish to be taught", because the free-flowing abundance of oil guaranteed their income and privileged status. He may also have wished for a pretext to abandon teaching and get going full-time as a writer.

Describing the Brunei debacle to an interviewer over twenty years later, Burgess commented: "One day in the classroom I decided that I'd had enough and to let others take over. I just lay down on the floor out of interest to see what would happen".On another occasion he described it as "a willed collapse out of sheer boredom and frustration". He gave a different account to the British arts and media veteran Jeremy Isaacs in 1987 when he said: "I was driven out of the Colonial Service for political reasons that were disguised as clinical reasons".He alluded to this in an interview with Don Swaim, explaining that after his wife Lynne had said something "obscene" to the UK Queen's consort, the Duke of Edinburgh, during an official visit, the colonial authorities turned against him. He had already earned their displeasure, he told Swaim, by writing for the newspaper of the revolutionary opposition party the Parti Rakyat Brunei, and for his friendship with its leader Dr. Azahari.

Repatriate years

Burgess was later repatriated and relieved of his position in Brunei. He spent some time in the neurological ward of a London hospital where he underwent cerebral tests that, as far as can be made out, proved negative. On his discharge, benefiting from a sum of money his wife had inherited from her father, together with their savings built up over six years in the East, he decided to become a full-time writer.

The couple lived first in an apartment in the town of Hove, near Brighton. They later moved to a semi-detached house called "Applegarth" in Etchingham, approximately a mile from the Jacobean house where Rudyard Kipling lived in Burwash, and also one mile from the Robertsbridge home of Malcolm Muggeridge.

Upon the death of his father-in-law, he and his wife used their inheritance and decamped to a terraced town house in Chiswick. This provided convenient access to the White City BBC television studios in which he later became a frequent guest. During these years Burgess became a regular drinking partner of the novelist William S. Burroughs. Their meetings took place in London and Tangiers.
A cruise holiday Burgess and his wife took to Leningrad in the USSR, resulted in Honey for the Bears and inspired some of the invented slang "Nadsat" used in A Clockwork Orange.

Liana Macellari, an Italian translator 12 years younger than Burgess, came across Burgess' novels One was Inside Mr Enderby and A Clockwork Orange while writing about English fiction. The two first met in 1963 over lunch in Chiswick. They began an affair and in 1964, Liana gave birth to Burgess' son, Paolo Andrea. The affair was hidden from his now alcoholic wife, with Burgess refusing to leave her for fear of offending his cousin George Patrick Dwyer, then Catholic Bishop of Leeds. Lynne died aged 47 from liver cirrhosis in March 1968. Six months later, in September 1968, Burgess married Liana. He then acknowledged the four year old boy as his own, describing himself as "a belated father", although the birth certificate listed Roy Halliday, who was previously Liana's companion, as the father. An attempt to kidnap Paolo-Andrea in Rome is believed to have been one of the factors influencing the family's move to Monaco. Paolo Andrea (also known as Andrew Burgess Wilson) died in London in 2002, aged 37.

Tax exile

To avoid the 90% tax the family would have incurred due to their high income, they left Britain. During their travels through France and across the Alps, Burgess wrote in the back of the van as Liana drove. In this period, he wrote novels and produced film scripts for Lew Grade and Franco Zeffirelli.

His first place of residence after leaving England was Lija, Malta (1968-1970), where he bought a house. Problems with the Maltese state censor later prompted a move to Rome. He maintained a flat in the Italian capital, a country house in Bracciano, and a property in Montalbuccio. There was a villa in Provence, in Callian of the Var, France, and an apartment just off Baker Street, London, very near the presumed home of Sherlock Holmes in the Arthur Conan Doyle stories.

Burgess lived for two years in the United States, working as a visiting professor at Princeton University (1970), where he helped teach the creative writing program, and as a "distinguished professor" at the City College of New York (1972). At City College he was a close colleague and friend of Joseph Heller. He went on to teach creative writing at Columbia University. He was also a writer-in-residence at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1969) and at the University at Buffalo (1976). He lectured on the novel at the University of Iowa in 1975.

Eventually he settled in Monaco, where he was active in the local community, becoming a co-founder in 1984 of the Princess Grace Irish Library, a centre for Irish cultural studies.
Burgess spent much time also at one of his houses, a chalet two kilometres outside Lugano, Switzerland.

Death

Burgess died on 22 November 1993 from lung cancer, at the Hospital of St John & St Elizabeth in London. His ashes went to the cemetery in Monte Carlo.

The epitaph on Burgess's marble memorial stone, behind which the vessel with his remains is kept, reads "Abba Abba", being

    * "Father, father" in Aramaic (and in Hebrew as well as in other Semitic languages), that is, an invocation to God as Father (Mark 14:36 etc.)
    * Burgess's initials forwards and backwards
    * part of the rhyme scheme for the Petrarchan sonnet
    * the Burgess novel about the death of Keats, Abba Abba
    * the abba rhyme scheme that Tennyson used for his poem on death, In Memoriam

Eulogies at his memorial service at St Paul's, Covent Garden, London in 1994 were delivered by the journalist Auberon Waugh and the novelist William Boyd.

At his death he was a multi-millionaire and left a Europe-wide property portfolio of houses and apartments numbering in the double figures.
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Achievement

Novels

His Malayan trilogy The Long Day Wanes—the three books are Time for a Tiger, The Enemy in the Blanket and Beds in the East—was Burgess's first published venture into the art of fiction.

It was Burgess's ambition to become "the true fictional expert on Malaya", and with the trilogy, he certainly staked a claim to have written the definitive Malayan novel (i.e. novel of expatriate experience of Malaya).

The trilogy joined a family of such Eastern fictional explorations, among them Orwell's treatment of Burma (Burmese Days), Forster's of India (A Passage to India) and Greene's of Vietnam (The Quiet American). Burgess was working in the tradition established by Kipling for British India and, for the Southeast Asian experience, Conrad and Maugham.

Unlike Conrad, Maugham and Greene, who made no effort to learn local languages, but like Orwell (who had a good command of Urdu and Burmese, necessary for his work as a police officer) and Kipling (who spoke Hindi, having learnt it as a child), Burgess had excellent spoken and written Malay. This linguistic command results in an impressive authenticity and sensitive understanding of indigenous concerns in the trilogy.

Burgess's repatriate years (c. 1960-69) produced not just Enderby but the neglected The Right to an Answer, which touches on the theme of death and dying, and One Hand Clapping, partly a satire on the vacuity of popular culture. This period also witnessed the publication of The Worm and the Ring, which was withdrawn from circulation under the threat of libel action from one of Burgess's former colleagues.

A product of these highly fertile years was his best-known work (or most notorious, after Stanley Kubrick made a motion picture adaptation), the dystopian novel "A Clockwork Orange" (1962). Inspired initially by an incident during World War II in which his wife Lynne was allegedly robbed and assaulted in London during the blackout by deserters from the U.S. Army (an event that may have contributed to a miscarriage she suffered), the book was an examination of free will and morality. The young anti-hero, Alex, captured after a career of violence and mayhem, is given aversion conditioning to stop his violence. It makes him defenceless against other people and unable to enjoy music that, besides violence, had been an intense pleasure for him. In the non-fiction book Flame Into Being (1985), Burgess described A Clockwork Orange as "a jeu d'esprit knocked off for money in three weeks, it became known as the raw material for a film which seemed to glorify sex and violence. The film made it easy for readers of the book to misunderstand what it was about, and the misunderstanding will pursue me till I die."

Burgess followed this with Nothing Like the Sun, a fictional recreation of Shakespeare's love-life and an examination of the (partly syphilitic, it was implied) sources of the bard's imaginative vision. The novel, which made some use of Edgar I. Fripp's 1938 biography Shakespeare, Man and Artist, won critical acclaim and placed Burgess in the front rank of novelists of his generation.

By the 1970s his output had become highly experimental, and some see a falling-off in the quality of his work in the period between the release of the Clockwork Orange movie, which brought Burgess fame, and the end of the decade.

Indeed, Burgess has been considered by some critics to be uneven in the quality of his output, and he has been faulted for what has been called a "novelettish kind of dialogue".

The bold and extraordinarily complex M/F (1971) showed the influence of Claude Lévi-Strauss and the structuralists, and was later listed by the writer himself as one of the works of which he was most proud. Beard's Roman Women is considered by some to be his least successful novel (plea of mitigation: it was written entirely while on the road in his Bedford Dormobile campervan). Burgess has frequently been criticised for writing too many novels and too quickly. All the same, Beard was revealing on a personal level, dealing with the death of his first wife, his bereavement, and the affair that led to his second marriage.

In another ambitious and unashamedly modernist fictional expedition, Napoleon Symphony, Burgess brought Bonaparte to life by shaping the novel's structure on Beethoven's Eroica symphony. This daring fictional experiment contains among many other assets a superb portrait of an Arab and Muslim society under occupation by a Christian western power (Egypt by Catholic France). The novel showed that while Burgess always regarded himself as little more than a student and epigone of Joyce, he was able at times to equal the master of modernism in literary sophistication and range.

There was a triumphant return to form in the 1980s, when religious themes began to weigh heavily. Though Burgess lapsed from Catholicism early in his youth, the influence of the Catholic "training" and worldview remained strong in his work all his life. This is notable in the discussion of free will in A Clockwork Orange, and in the apocalyptic vision of devastating changes in the Catholic Church—due to what can be understood as Satanic influence—in Earthly Powers (1980). That work was written in the first instance as a parody of the blockbuster novel.

He kept working through his final illness, and was writing on his deathbed. A late novel was Any Old Iron, a generational saga about two families, one Russian-Welsh, the other Jewish. It encompasses the sinking of the Titanic, World War I, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, World War II, and the early years of the State of Israel, as well as the imagined rediscovery of King Arthur's Excalibur.

A Dead Man in Deptford, about Christopher Marlowe, is a kind of companion volume to his Shakespeare novel Nothing Like the Sun. The verse novel Byrne was published posthumously.

Criticism

Burgess began his career as a critic with a well regarded text designed originally for use outside English-speaking countries. Aimed at newcomers to the subject, English Literature, A Survey for Students is still used in many schools today. He followed this with The Novel To-day and The Novel Now: A Student's Guide to Contemporary Fiction.

Then came the Joyce studies Here Comes Everybody: An Introduction to James Joyce for the Ordinary Reader (also published as Re Joyce) and Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce. Also published was A Shorter 'Finnegans Wake', Burgess's abridgement.

His 1970 Encyclopædia Britannica entry on the novel (under "Novel, the") is regarded as a classic of the genre.

Burgess wrote full-length critical studies of William Shakespeare, Ernest Hemingway and D. H. Lawrence. His Ninety-Nine Novels: The Best in English since 1939 remains an invaluable guide, while the published lecture Obscenity and the Arts explores issues of pornography.

Linguistics

The polyglot Burgess had command of Malay, Russian, French, German, Spanish, Italian and Welsh in addition to his native English, as well as some Hebrew, Japanese, Chinese, Swedish and Persian. In Earthly Powers, German, or perhaps its sound to an unlearned ear, is described as "a glottal fishboneclearing soulful sobbing sausagemachine of a language".

"Burgess's linguistic training," wrote Raymond Chapman and Tom McArthur in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, "is shown in dialogue enriched by distinctive pronunciations and the niceties of register."

His interest in linguistics was reflected in the invented, Anglo-Russian teen slang of A Clockwork Orange (Nadsat), and in the movie Quest for Fire (1981), for which he invented a prehistoric language (Ulam) for the characters to speak.

The hero of The Doctor is Sick, Dr. Edwin Spindrift, is a lecturer in linguistics. He escapes from a hospital ward which is peopled, as the critic Saul Maloff put it in a review, with "brain cases who happily exemplify varieties of English speech."

Burgess, who had lectured on phonetics at the University of Birmingham in the late 1940s, investigates the field of linguistics in Language Made Plain and A Mouthful of Air.

Journalism

Burgess produced journalism in British, Italian, French and American newspapers and magazines regularly. Martin Amis in The Observer (London) in 1987 said: "...on top of writing regularly for every known newspaper and magazine, Anthony Burgess writes regularly for every unknown one, too. Pick up a Hungarian quarterly or a Portuguese tabloid–and there is a Burgess, discoursing on goulash or test-driving the new Fiat 500."

"He was our star reviewer, always eager to take on something new, punctilious with deadlines, length and copy", wrote Burgess's literary editor at The Observer, Michael Ratcliffe.Selections of Burgess's journalism are to be found in Urgent Copy, Homage to QWERT YUIOP and One Man's Chorus.

Screenwriting

Burgess wrote the screenplays for Moses the Lawgiver (Gianfranco De Bosio 1975, with Burt Lancaster, Anthony Quayle and Ingrid Thulin), Jesus of Nazareth (Franco Zeffirelli 1977, with Robert Powell, Olivia Hussey and Rod Steiger), and A.D. (Stuart Cooper 1985, with Ava Gardner, Anthony Andrews and James Mason).

He devised the Stone Age language for La Guerre du Feu (Quest for Fire) (Jean-Jacques Annaud 1981, with Everett McGill, Ron Perlman and Nicholas Kadi).

Burgess was co-writer of the script for the TV series Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson (1980).

He penned many unpublished scripts, including one about Shakespeare which was to be called Will! or The Bawdy Bard. It was based on his novel Nothing Like The Sun.

Among the motion picture treatments he produced are Amundsen, Attila, The Black Prince, Cyrus the Great, Dawn Chorus, The Dirty Tricks of Bertoldo, Eternal Life, Onassis, Puma, Samson and Delila, Schreber, The Sexual Habits of the English Middle Class, Shah, That Man Freud and Uncle Ludwig.

Encouraged by his novel Tremor of Intent (a parody of James Bond adventures), Burgess wrote a screenplay for The Spy Who Loved Me. It was rejected. Burgess's plot featured Bond's identical twin 008 and revolved around an organisation called CHAOS (Consortium for the Hastening of the Annihilation of Organised Society). CHAOS has accumulated enough money to achieve its plans and is now concentrating on power for its own sake. It blackmails international figures into humiliating themselves by terrorism. During Burgess's proposed opening sequence, an airliner full of passengers is exploded as it takes off, CHAOS's response to the Pope's refusal to personally whitewash the Sistine Chapel. Bond discovers a plot to implant 'micro-nukes' in appendectomy patients, the aim being to blow up Sydney Opera House during a visit by international royals and presidents (this atrocity being in response to the US President's refusal to masturbate on live TV). In You've Had Your Time, Burgess commented that the only idea that survived from his screenplay was that the villains' hideout was a ship disguised as an oil tanker.

Symphonies

As Burgess put it, in the way that others might enjoy yachting or golf, "I write music." He was an accomplished musician and composed regularly throughout his life.

His works are infrequently performed today, but several of his pieces were broadcast during his lifetime on BBC Radio. His Symphony (No. 3) in C was premiered by the University of Iowa orchestra in Iowa City in 1975. Many of his unpublished compositions are listed in This Man and Music.

Sinfoni Melayu, characterised by the Burgess biographer Roger Lewis as "Elgar with bongo-bong drums", was described by Burgess, its composer, as an attempt to "combine the musical elements of the country into a synthetic language which called on native drums and xylophones".

The structure of Napoleon Symphony: A Novel in Four Movements (1974) was modelled on Beethoven's Eroica symphony, while Mozart and the Wolf Gang (1991) mirrors the sound and rhythm of Mozartian composition, among other things attempting a fictional representation of Symphony No.40. Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 features prominently in A Clockwork Orange (and also in Stanley Kubrick's film version of the novel).

When Burgess was on the BBC's Desert Island Discs radio programme in 1966, he made the following choice: Purcell, Rejoice in the Lord Alway; Bach, Goldberg Variations No. 13; Elgar, Symphony No. 1 in A flat major; Wagner, Walter's Trial Song from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; Debussy, Fêtes; Lambert, The Rio Grande; Walton, Symphony No. 1 in B flat; and Vaughan Williams, On Wenlock Edge.

For a list of some of Burgess's musical compositions, see under List of Burgess' works.

Opera and musicals

Burgess produced a translation of Bizet's Carmen which was performed by the English National Opera.

He created an operetta based on James Joyce's Ulysses called Blooms of Dublin (composed in 1982 and performed on the BBC), and wrote the book for the 1973 Broadway musical Cyrano, using his own adaptation of the Rostand play as its basis.

His new libretto for Weber's Oberon was performed by the Edinburgh-based Scottish Opera.

Work methods

He revealed in Martin Seymour-Smith's Novels and Novelists: A Guide to the World of Fiction (1980) that he would often prepare a synopsis with a name-list before beginning a project. But Seymour-Smith wrote: "Burgess believes overplanning is fatal to creativity and regards his unconscious mind and the act of writing itself as indispensable guides. He does not produce a draft of a whole novel which he then revises, but prefers to get one page finished before he goes on to the next, which involves a good deal of revision and correction."

His output from when he began writing professionally in his early forties until his death was to produce, at a minimum, 1,000 words of fair copy per day, weekends included, 365 days a year. His favoured time for working was the afternoon, since "the unconscious mind has a habit of asserting itself in the afternoon".

Linguistic gifts

Burgess's multilingual proficiency came under discussion in Roger Lewis's 2002 biography. Lewis claimed that during production in Malaysia of the BBC documentary A Kind of Failure (1982), Burgess, supposedly fluent in Malay, was unable to communicate with several waitresses at a restaurant where they were filming. It was claimed also that the documentary's director deliberately kept these moments intact in the film in order to expose Burgess's linguistic pretensions. There was a mixed response to the charge. For example, one critic appeared to accept the veracity of the claim, saying it "had me laughing immoderately", while another dismissed it as "another of Lewis's little smears". A letter from David Wallace that appeared in the magazine of the London Independent on Sunday newspaper on 25 November 2002 shed light on the affair. Wallace's letter read, in part: "…the tale was inaccurate. It tells of Burgess, the great linguist, 'bellowing Malay at a succession of Malayan waitresses' but 'unable to make himself understood'. The source of this tale was a 20-year-old BBC documentary....[The suggestion was] that the director left the scene in, in order to poke fun at the great author. Not so, and I can be sure, as I was that director…. The story as seen on television made it clear that Burgess knew that these waitresses were not Malay. It was a Chinese restaurant and Burgess's point was that the ethnic Chinese had little time for the government-enforced national language, Bahasa Malaysia [i.e. Malay]. Burgess may well have had an accent, but he did speak the language; it was the girls in question who did not." Lewis may not have been fully aware of the fact that a quarter of Malaysia's population is made up of Hokkien- and Cantonese-speaking Chinese. However, Malay had been installed as the National Language with the installation of the Language Act of 1967. By 1982 all national primary and secondary schools in Malaysia would have been teaching with Bahasa Melayu as a base language (see Harold Crouch, Government and Society in Malaysia, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1996).

During his years in Malaya, and after he had mastered Jawi, the Arabic script adapted for Malay, Burgess taught himself the Persian language, after which he produced a translation of Eliot's The Waste Land into Persian. It was never published, in Tehran or elsewhere. He also worked on an anthology of the best of English literature translated into Malay, which also failed to achieve publication.

Pop-culture influence
    * Burgess displayed more or less open contempt for most post-World War Two popular music. Its proponents are satirised in Enderby Outside, which features a lamentable rock band called Yod Crewsy and the Fixers, who composed "emetic little songs."
    * Burgess was a prodigious creator of nonce words and neologisms, in A Clockwork Orange and across the whole range of his work.
    * The epitaph on Burgess's marble memorial stone at the cemetery in Monte Carlo includes the phrase "Abba Abba". The reference is to the rhyme scheme ABBA ABBA in sonnets, as explored in Burgess's novel Abba Abba, as well as to Burgess's initials.[27]
    * There is a large amount of pop culture references to Burgess. Some examples:

        * The Sheffield electropop band Heaven 17 named themselves after a band that appears in Burgess's 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange (although they dropped the "the").
        * Another Sheffield group, Moloko, took its name from Burgess's (Russian-derived) Nadsat word for a drug-spiked milk drink.
        * The German punk rockers Die Toten Hosen's album Ein kleines bisschen Horrorschau referred to the Nadsat term, as did the Libertines' song "Horrorshow"; Poland's Myslovitz produced an album called Korova Milky Bar.
        * A popular bar and music venue in Liverpool is named the "Korova."

    * The 1971 cult film "A Clockwork Orange" was Stanley Kubrick's interpretation of Burgess' book.

Honours

    * Burgess garnered the Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres distinction of France and became a Monégasque Commandeur de Merite Culturel.
    * He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
    * He took honorary degrees from St Andrews, Birmingham and Manchester universities.
    * Burgess's masterpiece Earthly Powers was shortlisted for, but famously failed to win, the 1980 English Booker Prize for fiction (the prize went to William Golding for Rites of Passage).

Selected works

Novels

    * Time for a Tiger (1956) (Volume 1 of the Malayan trilogy, The Long Day Wanes)
    * The Enemy in the Blanket (1958) (Volume 2 of the trilogy)
    * Beds in the East (1959) (Volume 3 of the trilogy)
    * The Right to an Answer (1960)
    * The Doctor is Sick (1960)
    * The Worm and the Ring (1960)
    * Devil of a State (1961)
    * (as Joseph Kell) One Hand Clapping (1961)
    * A Clockwork Orange (1962; 2008 Prometheus Hall of Fame Award)
    * The Wanting Seed (1962)
    * Honey for the Bears (1963)
    * (as Joseph Kell) Inside Mr. Enderby (1963) (Volume 1 of the Enderby quartet)
    * The Eve of St. Venus (1964)
    * Nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare's Love Life (1964)
    * A Vision of Battlements (1965)
    * Tremor of Intent: An Eschatological Spy Novel (1966)
    * Enderby Outside (1968) (Volume 2 of the Enderby quartet)
    * M/F (1971)
    * Napoleon Symphony: A Novel in Four Movements (1974)
    * The Clockwork Testament, or Enderby's End (1974) (Volume 3 of the Enderby quartet)
    * Beard's Roman Women (1976)
    * Abba Abba (1977)
    * 1985 (1978)
    * Man of Nazareth (based on his screenplay for Jesus of Nazareth) (1979)
    * Earthly Powers (1980)
    * The End of the World News: An Entertainment (1982)
    * Enderby's Dark Lady, or No End of Enderby (1984) (Volume 4 of the Enderby quartet)
    * The Kingdom of the Wicked (1985)
    * The Pianoplayers (1986)
    * Any Old Iron (1988)
    * Mozart and the Wolf Gang (1991)
    * A Dead Man in Deptford (1993)
    * Byrne: A Novel (in verse) (1995)

Bibliography

Biographies

    * Roger Lewis, Anthony Burgess (2002)
    * Andrew Biswell, The Real Life of Anthony Burgess (2005)

Selected studies

    * Michael Ratcliffe, entry on Burgess for the New Dictionary of National Biography (2004).
    * Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 8th ed. (1992), on Burgess as musician
    * Richard Mathews, The Clockwork Universe of Anthony Burgess (Borgo Press, 1990)
    * Martine Ghosh-Schellhorn, Anthony Burgess: A Study in Character (Peter Lang AG, 1986)
    * Geoffrey Aggeler, Anthony Burgess: The Artist as Novelist (Alabama, 1979)
    * Samuel Coale, Anthony Burgess (New York, 1981)
    * A.A. Devitis, Anthony Burgess (New York, 1972)
    * John J. Stinson, "Anthony Burgess Revisited" (Boston, 1991)
    * Jerome Gold, The Prisoner's Son: Homage to Anthony Burgess (Black Heron Press 1996)
    * Robert K. Morris, The Consolations of Ambiguity: An Essay on the Novels of Anthony Burgess (Missouri, 1971)
    * Carol M. Dix, Anthony Burgess (British Council, 1971)
    * Paul Phillips, A Clockwork Counterpoint: The Music and Literature of Anthony Burgess (Manchester University Press, forthcoming).

Memoirs

A few of the memoirs and other books in which Burgess is discussed:

    * Michael Mewshaw, 'Do I Owe You Something?', Granta No. 75 (2001)
    * Gore Vidal, United States: Essays 1952-1992 (1993)
    * Frederic Raphael, Eyes Wide Open (1999)
    * Kingsley Amis, Memoirs (1991)
    * D.J. Enright, A Mania for Sentences (1983); Man Is An Onion (1972)

Collections

    * Many of Burgess's literary and musical papers are archived at the International Anthony Burgess Foundation in Withington, Manchester.
    * The largest collection of Burgessiana is held at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center of the University of Texas at Austin.
    * Burgess scholars will find much of interest at the Anthony Burgess Center of the University of Angers, with which Burgess's widow Liana (Liliana Macellari) is connected.




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